Chapter IV




"There are more mysteries between heavens and earth

then those which dreams our vain philosophy. "

- Shakespeare -


      The matter is a very exotic property of the Cosmos.

      It seems to me that the best and most logical definition of mass will come from Einstein's equation m = E/c2.  We could see Mass as a kind of Energy materialization! This expression would be responsible for the formation of particles of radiation and particles of matter.

     My suggestion goes in the direction of proposing that the materialization of the energy has been obtained from a pure energy that already existed in the early stage of the Cosmos. And the consolidation of the first material-energy particles would have evolved from a state of chaos until it reaches a minimal state of balance and order. Finally, the consolidation of mass is nothing less but pure energy in motion.

      Before we proceed with the explanation of this process let us look at the following experience where a similar effect occurs.  This experience shows that a natural evolution of a system that starts with a state of chaos but, with time, the system reaches a state of natural equilibrium, balance and order. For example, when considering the heating of a liquid, we can see, initially, a chaotic thermal disorder, in which the molecules travel in all directions in a disorderly manner. But if we continue to heat this liquid more and more, then, from a certain moment, we can observe the formation of small vortices of constant rotation, in which billions of billions of molecules follow each other in to a perfectly orderly movement.

     This experience can be verified experimentally and it notes that there is a natural formation of order from an initial chaos condition in a spontaneous way. Nature follows its natural meaning, which is to achieve the minimum state of balance and equilibrium, thus, by creating these constant movements of rotation Nature avoid a state of absolute chaos and maximum entropy.

     With this analysis we will assume that a similar process occur in the formation of the first particle of matter in our Universe. Suggesting that, primitive particles have emerged, not from a liquid but from another specific substance. This substance would be a primitive kind of energy already existed in the beginning of the Universe.

     It would be proper to remember that by Classical Physics, we say that there is an electromagnetic or gravitational field in a specific region of space when an electrical charge or a mass is placed in that region and exposed to these fields and as a result it feels the effects of these forces.

     With this idea we can highlight the following conclusion, which is: even in the absence of charges or masses, at least there are fields!

     Our Primordial Universe would be emerged in a primitive field. And even in the absence of electrical charges, masses, quarks or any kind of particles such as photons, at least there would remain a Pure Primordial source of Energy and Radiation.

     The lines of force of a field are areas that represent a virtual storage of energy, lots of energy, potential energy. The lines of energy are a Field of Force, which is also a Potential Field, which means a virtual storage of an invisible energy that can only manifests itself when masses or charges are introduced. But this field is always present, potentially active, waiting, patiently, for an opportunity to become real and manifest itself. This is the mystery of a Field Force!

      Resuming, we could say that the kind of force which was dominant in the beginning of the formation of the Universe is related with Pure Radiation or Pure Filed Energy. This would be the substance that existed at the beginning of the Cosmos ... Pure Energy in Motion, that is, momentum.

     Considering that:

E = m.c2 <=>  m = E/c2

      And furthermore:

p = m.v <=> m = p / v


     Matching both equations, it emerges a new relation which is:


E/c2 = p / v


      Assuming that in this period of time the Universe would be immersed by high amounts of energy, filled with pure primitive radiation, in these conditions these virtual particles would reflect a high quantity of kinetic energy and most of its energy would be closed in its frenetic movement, constantly shaking from one side to another.  Replacing in the equation v by c, is that:


p = E.c / c2 <=> p = E / c


      Again, momentum ‘p’, amount of movement, which is no more than Energy in Motion. This was the initial state of our Universe … pure energy in motion …

     Momentum and Energy! The only two units of Physics truly fundamental …

      In a continuous and random movement under these high densities of energy, some of these movements would develop a Rotation Movement. And this rotation is extremely important. These little vortices of rotation may be associated with the first quality inherent to any particle which is a very important property of matter: the Spin!

      All known particles by the physicists have three properties: the mass, the charge, and Spin. We can imagine the spin as a characteristic associated with the movement of energy rotation and with the magnetic moment of these particles. In a way, we can define spin as a direction in space, spin defines a direction of an axis ... but this characteristic that all the fundamental particles present is truly unique and hard to explain ... All particles have a spin very well defined, and this quality does not change, nor can it be changed, it is permanent and immortal.

     Let us now present another analogy: We could remember that the process of magnetization of a cylinder of steel can be obtained in the absence of magnetic fields (except the field produced by the Earth), making the cylinder spin rapidly on its axis. As faster as it moves, as stronger is the magnetization process. At the end of this continuous movement we will find a new magnetic field concentrated on the surface of the cylinder. This phenomenon is in agreement with the Electromagnetic Theory, in which any electric charge in rotation generates a magnetic field in its surrounding. A macro example of this effect is the terrestrial magnetic field, which origin comes from the movement of charges within the nucleus of the Earth.

     In our particular case there is no electrical charge, only movement and energy. This continuous movement of energy in rotation takes a specific and constant acceleration, the same as in the cylinder it forms a spherical field above the surface, surrounding a center point. We could designate this field as a kind of Surface Gravity Field, below this surface there is no gravitational field, which means, where the radius = zero, Gravity is also zero, and there is also no Gravity forces acting in any part closest to the center.

     Thus the idea of this model solves the problem of the infinite in the formula of Newton, stating that Gravity does not exist inside the particles, assuming that this is a Surface Field and external to the particle.      

     This would be the process of formation of all fundamental particles!

     This concept would end the infinite indivisibility of matter!

     This surface field can be consider as a shield, an armour, a blindage which is much stronger in the border area, as if forming a wall of strength, an extremely strong field, but in reality is invisible and immaterial.

     The particles delude ourselves ... make us believe that the matter is material that it has got mass in its constitution … all illusions!

      However, by this stage I wouldn’t call it as a Gravitational Force, it would be more appropriate to designate it like a Material Force, responsible for the formation of matter. Since this material force does not have any attraction characteristic, it is simply a blindage, and it has got no charge, or else, to be more precisely, it has got a neutral charge.

     This material structure consisting of small Force Vortices of high density energy, would fill several points of space in the Primordial Universe, when our Cosmos had only a few microseconds of existence.

      We could assume that these first primitive particles would be a kind of primitive rotators (neutral particle of rotation), but relatively dense and particularly unstable and vulnerable. In a constant frenzy of fast movements and high energy, these primitive and neutral rotators would be broken. From a result of these shocks and collisions it emerges some new particles, more stable, specific particles that are called today like the fundamental particles of matter: the Quarks.

     The Quarks are, most likely, the more stable and the most fundamental particles of the Universe.

     Following the patterns of a Natural Process of Evolution, towards the survival of the strongest ones, our primitive rotators would have a very short life time period and a temporary survival. Unstable, these primitive rotators would continuously disintegrate in a process of transformation in order to achieve a more stable particle: a Quark.

     This spontaneous breaking has its origin in a very fundamental force, the force of instability, which is simultaneously, a Force of Balance. This is an extremely Weak Force, but with a critical and fundamental part in the evolution of the Universe.

     This is the very first sign of the interaction of the Weak Force, which would lead to all neutral rotators to disintegrated and disappeared, leaving behind: a sea of Quarks.

     In this Universe, more expanded, the temperatures began to fall and this new environment has brought some peace and serenity to these particles. This shiny glimpse of stability allowed creating order from chaos.

      According to the standard cosmology, the physicist state that:

     "A Universe with only three minutes old had formed its first atomic nuclei."

     From my point of view, I must say that this seems a little bit early. The creation of a single atom involves a great level of complexity.

     It is known that the constituents of the nuclei are protons and neutrons, and that the constituents of these particles are the quarks, or rather, triplet of quarks. Each proton is formed by a group of three quarks, and each neutron is formed by a group of three quarks. All quarks have the same spin = ½. But quarks are not all the same!

     First, they are extremely small, the order of 10-18 m, therefore, very difficult to detect by direct experience. Indeed, they are so small that its size is not yet well established, and there is no direct evidence of this substructure, we can only infer its existence because they fit perfectly on a theoretical model of the structure of matter.

     Another characteristic that arises is: all quarks have electric charge. And this is another very fundamental characteristic of matter.

     Interestingly, the quarks must be the first particles responsible to cause the formation of the electrical charge. The rupture of the primitive particles of rotation, may have led to the rupture of the charge itself, dividing it into fractional charges.

     The truth is that experiments have proved that a neutron consists of three quarks, with two charges equal to -1/3 and one charge equal to +2/3, which makes a total amount of a neutral charge, which is the charge of the neutron. Adding everything, the final charge is equal to zero … (- 1/3) + (- 1/3) + 2/3 = 0

     Similarly, the proton consists of three quarks, two charges equal to +2/3 and one charge equal to -1/3, which makes a positive charge 1, which is the charge of the proton.

     There are only two types of charge in quarks: 2/3e and -1/3e.

     The first unification of Nature must have emerged towards the quarks unification producing the union of these fundamental particles. The first agglomeration must have followed to recover the balance, which is to achieve the stability of the electric field. As such, the favorite group would be those build of three quarks that could form a stable and electrically neutral particle: the neutron.

     This small electrical attraction led, most probably, to the formation of another type of group or groups of quarks, also neutral, but more instable, build with a higher number of quarks, but that, somehow, this specific group did not satisfy the requirements and interests of Nature.

     This primitive form of matter would be unsuccessful in the path of evolution and it would not have evolved, remaining hidden and obscure, distributed by a vast area of the Universe, it would be some kind of a failed matter ... really interesting ... matter hidden, matter black, dark matter ...

      Nature is smart. Do not underestimate the intelligence of Nature.

     The Evolution follows always its way to acquire and achieve a higher degree of complexity. Everything has got a reason to be. Remember that, by the concepts of Darwin, the natural path of primate’s evolution ended into different ways; emerged in two distinct branches: Chimpanzees and Humans.     

     There is much missing matter in the book of accounts of the Universe. Recently physicists have discovered a mysterious type of matter, so far unknown, because its presence has remained hidden during all this time ... it is the exotic Dark Matter!