Chapter X




" Life is like a sculpture. It is a question of being capable to see what others do not see and, later, with a hammer tool, take of what surplus. "

- Miguel Ângelo -


     With this new model set for a Universe with no primordial gravitational forces, many issues would be resolved.

     In order to achieve the resolution of these issues we must abandon the preconceit that considers Gravity as an innate force of the Cosmos and inherent to masses!

     By introducing this revolutionary change in the field of Physics, another aspect should be focus, which is:

      What I think is that the intimate structure of matter is not in any way related to the Gravitational Force! And consecutively, the gravitational force is not directly related to this physical variable: quality or quantity of Mass!

     It is clear that this new perspective would, necessarily, raise another question. After all, where does Gravity come from?

     This is the big question that reunites us here today!

     As we can see in several books of Physics, when they present several important dates of the Natural History of the Universe, we can see that the Force of Gravity appears at the beginning of time, together with the birth of the Universe, at the moment of the Big Bang. The reason for that is, apparently, somehow physicists consider that Gravity is intimately related to time.

     Referring a small excerpt, it appears the following:

     'In the first moments, when the Universe was only 10-43s of age, soon after the explosion of the Big Bang, space and time were still being created. The forces of Nature were combined in a single Primordial Force, designating it by the Big Unified Force. That specific period is designated as the Planks time, and its details cannot be explained because we need a theory of Quantum Gravity (...) and at this time all the forces were still being formed. "

     According to what has been demonstrated, until now, we did not need to include any Gravitational Force to explain the Natural Evolution of the Universe.

     I almost dare to believe that maybe we don’t need any Quantum Theory of Gravity!

     Clearly, this deduction would, automatically, turned many physicists bold and in a state of shock! What would not be very convenient or appropriate.

     Before getting into fast conclusions, let us start, once again, from the beginning …

     It would be a good start recalling that the concept of Mass and the concept of Weight of an object are two very different qualities in Physics. It is important not to confuse them.

     We know that our weight on Earth does not have the same value as the weight in the Moon. Our weight on the Moon is less than the weight we feel on Earth. And when this happens it is not because it had occurred a deficit of mass. The Mass remains the same, because Mass is a measure of the quantity of matter, number of atoms, but the weight is different, because the weight is a measure of a force applied to an amount of mass.

     Our weight in the Moon is smaller, simply because mass feels less weight, because there is less gravitational forces acting.

     And with this I wish to conclude the following:  that the mass can exist even in the absence of gravitational forces, simply, it ceases to feel weight ... very interesting!

     The weight depends of the place where we remain, of where we are, which means that it depends of the local magnitude of the acceleration caused by Gravitational Forces.


     If you agreed, then, you will also agree that Mass and Gravitational Influence may be independent concepts, and then we can conclude that they are not directly related!

     The gravitational influence only transmits weight to the masses. This effect shows up only when combining these two variables: the amount of mass exposed to a gravitational field, and as a result we will have heavy matter.

     Although the mass of an atom is concentrated in its core, in the nucleus, we are deluded by Nature and we believe that the Gravitational Force also comes from this center. We do immediately implement the following deduction: obviously if the higher concentration of gravity is where it is the largest concentration of matter, nothing more than logical to conclude that Gravity comes from this quality of Mass.

     But as we have seen before this quality of Mass it is not directly connected with Gravity!

     But still we try to explore, at all costs, what is the secret of matter, what is its minimum indivisible composition, and so we hope to obtain the Quantization of Matter and achieve a Quantum Theory of Gravity. This is the biggest enigma that draws the attention of thousands of physicists around the world ...

     I’m sorry to disappoint you but, although the largest concentration of mass leads to higher values of gravity, which is inside the nucleus of the atom, the source of the gravitational field, this one, it does not come from the center!

     To reach into this conclusion it would be very simple, we just have to go backwards in time and continue with our Natural Evolution of the Universe.

     Where were we? ... Ah! ... Yes ... 300 000 a. B.B. (after Big Bang)

     Continuing with our model of absence of gravity in this original Cosmos, we went back in time and enter in the period of Uniformity.

      This Uniformity who appeared and remained even after 300 000 years after the period of inflation occur, could be easily explained if we assume that nothing could perturb the position of a single particle, if we consider that there are no gravitational forces acting on mass and so nothing could undo this uniformity and cause the minimum change of density or concentration of matter.

     Thus, the second law of Newton's, the Law of Motion, or F = m.a, could not come into action, because the particles would not be attracted by anything, because if no force is being applied to them, then the primitive matter would remain exactly in the same initial positions.

     Except for the relative distance between them, that would increase due to natural phenomenon of the Universe expansion and extension of space itself. An interesting phenomenon, the distension of space observed by Hubble, when he confirmed that all the galaxies were being away from us at the same time ... very interesting ... but the explanation of this phenomenon we will leave for some other time.

     So far, as we saw, what happened in this Cosmos has been the development of matter itself. The transformation of primordial particles into primitive nucleus of quarks and that some of these primitive nuclei obtain the neutron-proton transformation, but not all of them. Most of them remained as Dark Matter and only a small part evolved into Chemical Elements.

     All the Dark Matter that astronomers have detected in space only represents all  matter that has failed in the natural process of evolution of the Universe and so therefore is very unlikely, and extremely difficult, that the first atomic nuclei were formed when the Universe was only three minutes old!

     With this new scenario we must note that although all the amount of matter is evenly well distributed, not all of it evolved in the same way. Only a small part, some of this isolated nucleus, randomly distributed, were able to form Hydrogen isotopes.

     From this moment in time when a familiarly atom of the periodic table is formed, consisting of one proton and one electron, it also emerges the Electromagnetic Radiation, which begins to fill the entire space.

     The evidence of this cosmological event in time is shown in the emergence of photons detected in the Cosmic Background Radiation.

     Before this period in time it is impossible to obtain any 'visual' fossil registration of our Universe.

     What I intend to say more directly is that, it was approximately during this period that the Electromagnetic Radiation is formed! Also this Force had to be created and born from a natural process of evolution! Without protons and electrons there is no Electromagnetic Force.

     Again, it should be noted that the Electromagnetic Force arises only as a result of the interaction of photons and electrical charges.

     This new model of our Cosmos aims to focus a natural Evolution, very wised and spared. Nature only needed to create one Force at a time ... one after another ... or almost!

     And with this, I have said almost everything!

     If you noticed, what happens after this moment in time is that the Universe begins to evolve in a very different way. The first concentrations of matter began to emerge, more specifically, concentrations of Hydrogen gas, which can only be explained if we assume that there are gravitational influences. Thus, concentrations of matter can only occur if we admit the existence of Gravity. Somewhere during this time emerged the Gravitational Force!

     We know that Gravity is the weakest of all forces. Its action is slow but very patient.

     The first evidence of large concentrations of matter occurred thousands of years after the Big Bang in the form of Quasars very dense and hyper-luminous.

     These early stars are extremely interesting. With the size of a single star they can produce powerful radiation, the same as an entire galaxy. These Galactic nucleuses produce an intense quantity of light, so high that the density of photons emitted at this time per unit volume was an order superior then the present.

     The quasars are objects distant in time and as such they no longer exist. These old stars are the fossil registrations of the first steps in the evolution of our Universe involving high energy, and these primitive concentrations of mass are the first evidence of the formation of large structures of matter in order to form the first stars and the first galaxies.  The time required to achieve this amount of matter is actually huge, probably of several million years.

     Interestingly, if we imagine this process backwards in time and reverse the process of gravitational attraction that led to the concentration of such matter into Quasars we probably arrived exactly about the same time of Uniformity.

     In deed the time required to cluster this quantity of matter is really huge.

     Obviously, this leads us to conclude that the Gravitational Force must have emerged very early.

     We could assume that the gravitational force emerged sometime during the period of Uniformity or Homogeneity… again!

      Thus, we could also assume that within this period, approximately 300 000 a.B.B., as soon as a single Atom of the periodic table was build, suddenly emerged the  Electromagnetic Force produced by electric charges, and also the Gravitational Force produced by ... ... well ... let's say for more complex compositions of matter.

     With this we can conclude that only the common atoms of the Periodic Table are capable of producing Electromagnetic Radiation and Gravitational Radiation ... It is on purposes, I consider it as Gravitational Radiation.

     This was the true Era of Radiation!

     To complete the pack of our forces, there is one still missing: the Strong Force.      What is the Strong Force? We know that the Strong Force is responsible for keeping the protons in the nucleus together. Without the presence of this force equal charges would repel. But why would Nature need to create the Strong Force?

     The answer to that is very simple. It is confirmed that Nature has a tendency to form groups of matter and clusters of mass with larger numbers of atoms becoming a structure more refined.

     In order to acquire a higher degree of complexity, the union developed in order to form atoms more complex than Hydrogen. The next effort followed in an attempt to build atoms of Helium.

     Form an atom of Helium was not easy. It was necessary to maintain two protons very close to each other, concentrated in a nucleus and two electrons orbiting around, near the core, in the periphery of the atom.

     Using again the registrations of our Cosmological Almanac, it appears that, almost since the beginning of the Universe, there are 15 000 million years ago, which has been happening the formation of Hydrogen, so that this atom is today the dominant chemical element and the one which exists in higher quantity.

     Soon after this, we have the Helium, whose relationship of proportion between them is 75% Hydrogen and 25% Helium. However, from this 25% amount of Helium only 10% were formed in the stars, the remaining 90% are prior to the formation of stars. What studies have showed is that this chemical element has evolved relatively soon, long before the birth of stars.

     Of all the constituent elements of the Periodic Table, in our Universe, 99.9% are Hydrogen and Helium and the remaining 0.1% represents all the other heavier elements like Oxygen and Carbon, etc.

     The proportion of Helium is still very high ... curious ...

     The Helium is a strong union of two atoms of Hydrogen ...

     Do you read my thoughts?

     First, the Electromagnetic Force came with the Hydrogen atoms, with the creation of electric charges;

     Second, the Gravitational Force also arises with the formation of Hydrogen atoms, with the creation of more complex structures of matter;

     Third, the Strong Force is already present soon in the life time of the Universe, an example of its manifestation is in the formation of atoms of Helium, but their percentage is lower than Hydrogen because, first, it was  waiting for the gravitational force to pull and concentrate some  amount of  Hydrogen;

     Fourth, the Strong Force has possibly arisen simultaneously with the Electromagnetic Force and the Gravitational Force!

      Very interesting ...

     First conclusion: everything returns to the same moment in time: the formation of the Atom!

     At first glance this may seem an obvious conclusion, or most obvious, but perhaps it is not so clear as it seems.

     With the formation of the atom all the other three forces of Nature were also formed. Therefore, they did not always exist. Also they had to be created in some moment in the evolution of the Universe!

     This already goes against the principles of many physicists, who believe in a more Biblical Physics than a Natural one!

     The theoretical physicists assume that all the four forces of Nature were already present at the beginning of the Universe!

     As same as the Bible that assumes that humans were already present since the beginning of the formation of the earth, that believes man evolved from Adam. Thus the physicists also believe that all fundamental forces of Nature were all born at the same time, emerging all from the Big Bang!

     In my view, this is a critical error ...

     Although all physicists agrees that radiation and photons are innate properties of the Cosmos, as well as all the Forces of Nature emerged with the Big Bang, the truth is that the four forces of Nature did not emerge all at once and at the same time in the form of a Grand Unified Theory!

     Continuing with our Natural History of the Universe, we could assume that the three forces of Nature - The Electromagnetic Force; Gravitational Force and the Strong Force - were created at the same time, simultaneously with the formation of the Atom.

     We could speculate that they might have had a common cause.

     We could speculate a little more and believe that they could perhaps share the same origin!

     But how would that be possible? Is there any similarity or any chance of a link between these three forces, supposedly so different? Clearly, these three forces of Nature have distinct functions and interactions! But is there any chance of connection between them?!

     If we could discover what relates these three forces, which is its common gene... we would have the key to our Pandora's Box, and with it, we would find out everything!