Chapter XI




"We are just dust from the stars."

- Carl Sagan -


      According to the Standard Model of Cosmology, scientists in general, accept that there was a moment of creation for the Universe. In this model, physicists proposed a Unified Theory in which they believe that in fractions of a second after the Big Bang occur all of the four known forces of Nature already existed, and that these individual forces were, at this period in time, combined together in the form of a single large super powerful Force, known as the Great Unified Force.

      The origin and characteristics of this unique Force is, however, very uncertain and undefined, but it is considerer that this was the master Force responsible for the first moments of our Primitive Universe, which in this initial stage of evolution was not formed and filled by matter but only by energy in the form of radiation.

      The theory assumes that all of this four forces, with very distinct interaction and functions in Nature, the Gravity Force, the Electromagnetic Force, the Strong Nuclear Force, and the Weak Nuclear Force, were already present since the beginning of the Universe and that all of these four forces acted in a unique way in a form of a Great Force, with mysterious and natural properties, but, unfortunately, not much is known about the function and behavior of this force ...

      Force of what?!

      Scientist anticipate that this Unified Force change its characteristics and properties over time, and as the Universe began to cool down this Great Force was separated and broken, gradually branching into the four forces currently known. However, it is not given any evidence sufficiently clear that justifies and explains this process. Physicists in general just do believe that this was the way that happened. Their arguments are based on the coupling constants of these forces and in the union and convergence of the same when framed in a High Energy Physics, characteristic of a Primordial Universe.

      Without having to appeal to very refined calculations, perhaps there may be another solution. The analysis that it will be presented is based on a much easier version and follows from the cosmological facts and evidences.

      Returning to our Natural History of the Universe, it would be good to make a pause for a moment and reflect on the following question:

      What is the common characteristic of all the forces of Nature?

      Looking like this, suddenly it appears that we cannot see any similarity between them, in anything. These four forces seem to have nothing in common ... or almost nothing!

      In order to try to make a clear identification of these forces, we will try to recapitulate the properties and characteristics of each one of them in detail.  Let us began buy investigating if there is any relationship between the Electromagnetic Force and Gravitational Force.

      The first thing that we learn in school is that the Electromagnetic Force is a force of radiation and that the Gravitational Force is not a radiation force.

      Please do get ready for a new journey in time, because not everything that we learn in school is correct!

      Let us now make some comments about these two forces.

     At first, we should note, the enunciation of the Universal Law of Gravitation written by Newton: "Two bodies with mass feel a force of attraction in the direct ratio of their masses and in inverse ratio of the square of the distance between them."

      Take now the statement of Coulomb's Law for the Electromagnetic Force, "Two electrically charged bodies exert a force proportional to its charge and inversely proportional to the distance between them." In this case, the law has something more to add: if the charges are opposite, there will be attraction between them, otherwise there will be repulsion.

      First, we should note the similarity in the structure of these two laws: both say that a force is proportional to a specific attribute: mass in the case of gravity, electric charge for electricity; both agree with a elementary constant of the environment, ‘K’ dielectric constant, and ‘G’ gravitational constant; and both vary in the inverse ratio of the square of the distance. The two formulas of these forces have in fact a similar pattern:


Fem = K. Q.Q / r2


Fg = G. m.m / r2


      Is this an accident of Nature? Nature has got very few accidents!

      It was based on this symmetry of Coulomb's Law and Newton's Law that Einstein think that this could not be a pure coincidence. Until the end of his life, Einstein tried to describe all the forces of Nature through a unique formalism of unification. He took years to try to carry out this unification which could describe all the forces of Nature through a single equation. He always believed, until his last breath, there was a relationship between these forces.

      Unfortunately, he did not have the possibility to confirm that there is a relation! Einstein was right ... once again.

      The truth is all written in the Great Book of Nature!

      Let us highlight the assertive characteristics of these two forces:


1st - In the case of Electromagnetism identical poles repel each other.

        (Electromagnetism is a naturally repulsive);

         In the case of Gravity, identical poles attract.

         (Gravity is a naturally attractive).


  2nd - In the case of Electromagnetism there is always an electromagnetic dipole.

       (There are no magnetic monopoles, when a magnet is broken we will always get  a new magnet with two distinct poles);

       In the case of Gravity, the opposite occurs, there is always a gravitational


       ( There are no gravitational dipoles; when a mass gets divided we do not find ‘negative’ masses that experiment gravitational repulsion ).


3rd - What one Force has got, the other does not have;

        What one Force does, the other one does not do.


      Is it possible to achieve a pattern from this information?

      I see a pattern. You do not see the pattern?

      Here there is no Symmetry, not at all … that is a fact … but there is something else ... what we have here is Asymmetry!

      It seems that there is hidden in these laws some kind of an Algorithm for Asymmetry!

      Is it possible that Nature also understands a little bit of Informatics?!

      Symmetry, symmetry ... when I pronounce this word, does it not make you remember anything?

      Asymmetry … does it not remind you of something?

      ... Asymmetry… Asymmetry … Asymmetry!

     It was precisely at this moment that my brain was flashlight, and all my neurons were turned on in flash!

      Magnificent, superb, simply phenomenal!!

      Another clue: A new tool that physicists invented to study the physical properties of Nature is called Symmetry.

      As you all know, the ordinary concept of symmetry is related with the reflection of an object in front of a plane mirror. An object is related to its image in the mirror.  In a symmetrical object, a sphere for example, the reflection shows the same characteristics as the original object and even if we try to make any rotation in the original object, its image in the mirror does not change. This means that this transformation has not led to any differences in the image analyzed. The final image appears the same. And this is considered as an example of Geometric Symmetry, however, there are other types of symmetry, more abstract, used by many particle physicists.

      The concept of symmetry applies to certain proceedings in the field of Physics. It´s   technical term is called of Parity or simply Symmetry.

      The symmetry is important in many physical processes of Nature, the break of the symmetry too.

      Apparently all the forces of Nature respect the symmetry, but not one of them … that breaks it...  What is the force that is associated with asymmetry? What is the force that does not respect the symmetry in the mirror?  I leave you to think...

      Let me reformulate the question. With this scenario that we have seen so far, I ask you:

      What could be the Mother Force of all forces? The Force that was always present, almost since the beginning?

      Well, of course! Certainly we are all referring to the Weak Force!

      And what is the Weak Force?

      It is the force responsible for radioactive disintegration. Correct?

      Well, then we can also say that this is the Force of Radiation!

      And don’t you think that a Force of Radiation would produce new Forces of Radiation ... a little bit more weak ... but still forces of radiation?

     I think that what we need to consider is how, at this scenario, could that be possible. Let us try to reveal the process of this mechanism.

      Take the example of the neutron-proton mutation or, more precisely, the Beta disintegration.

      Nature can not invent. But for example, if I have one orange, I cannot invent two oranges, but I can divide my orange. Right?

      In the process of Beta disintegration Nature cannot invent, therefore it divides their properties.

      In the specific case of neutron-proton mutation what we have is the following:   

   1st -  Division of Mass:


neutron mass =  proton mass + electron mass +  neutrino mass


     2nd - Division of Electric Charge:


neutron charge = proton charge +  electron charge +  neutrino charge


      We know that there are particles mediating the Weak Force which are responsible by causing this conversion. These mediators are Bosons W+, W- and Z0.

      Exactly three mediator particles … Very interesting!  In its physical notation we have:


n0 =  W+ + W- + Z0


n0 = p+ + e- + ν0


         Nature does not reveal immediately all of its secrets!   Can we get from here a third division?

           3rd - Division of ...

      What if I change the equation in to this way:


Weak Force = mp+ + me- + mν0


       And if I remember I need to know where does this come from:


Strong Force + Electromagnetic Force + Gravitational Force


      And if I rewrite the equation in to this way:


Weak Force = Strong Force + Electromagnetic Force + Gravitational Force


      Already seeing the pattern?  The Weak Force divides the Mass … the Weak Force divides the Electric Charges and ...


The Weak Force divides the FORCES!


       The Weak Force is weak only by name, because it is the central structure of all the Forces of Physics!