Chapter XIII




"If you have an idea and if at first glance it does not look like completely absurd,

 then, there is no salvation to it."

- Albert Einstein -


      What kind of force is Gravity?

      If we aspire so much to obtain a Theory of Everything, the Great Unification Theory, the Cosmic Unity, we must overcome our prejudice that establish Gravity and Electromagnetism as two distinct and quite completely different forces. In my point of view, they are not so divergent.

      Considering these two hypotheses:

     That Gravity is not directly related to mass; and that Gravity is a force of radiation.

     Is it possible that we can formulate a new Theory of Gravity based on these assumptions?

      1st Scenario:

      If it does not come from the center of the nucleus, from the concentration of mass, then, where does Gravity come from?

      The Gravity emanates from everything: from matter, from heat, light, even from the very Gravity itself!

      The light, feels weight, therefore it is affected by Gravity. Let us remember that a photon it is a particle which has got no mass! A photon is not only diverted of its trajectory by the presence of a Gravity field, due to the proximity of huge masses like stars for example, but it is also able to attract other objects. A ray of light with sufficiently high energy would attract us, or vice versa ... it is relative.

     How come a photon, a particle with zero quantity of mass, can be affected by Gravity and can also produce a gravitational field!?

      The movement can also feel weight. It is known that a star with a faster movement of rotation exerts a gravitational pull stronger than an equal star with the same mass but moving in slow motion ... the reason why this happens it is not because it was added more mass …

      The Theory of Gravity describes that mass can produce a gravitational field and that from this, depending on movement, more Gravity can be produced.

     Gravity can produce Gravity and so on!

     Gravity can also be generated by a magnetic field in movement around a Space Station! ... Very interesting… very interesting indeed!

     Does Gravity also suffer from a syndrome of personality disorder? What is the only variable in these three cases? For sure it is not the Mass the correct variable. ..

     After all, where does it come from so much quantity of Gravity?!

         We are constantly saying that the Force of Gravity has got a completely different structure from other forces;

      I often listen that Gravity is a Classical Force, completely distinct from all the others;

      Many times is said that, indeed, there is no Force of Gravity at all, in fact this is only and simply just a geometric property of space-time itself;

      I constantly hear if Electromagnetism and Gravitation have something in common or any kind of similarity, it is only because their strength varies with the inverse square of the distance!

      This is very annoying! I feel the obligation to intervene.

      I consider that all these characteristics, connotations, and descriptions are quite disconcerting.


      Point n. 1 - Both are field forces;

      Point n. 2 - Both vary in inverse ratio of the square of the distance;

      Point n. 3 - Both have infinite range;

      Point n. 4 - Both propagate at the same speed.


      Curiously, the speed of propagation of Gravity it is not instantaneous, its speed is equal to 'c', the speed of light! Is this a coincidence? The Universe has many little coincidences!

     Can it be that Gravity it is also an Electromagnetic Wave?!!

     Some might think this is a very strange concept, but if we want to address a new Physics, we must demand new ideas.

     Only because it is suggested and of common  agreement that Gravity is not a force of radiation, is now for me much more difficult to say the opposite and present Gravity as an electromagnetic wave.

     Let us start from the beginning:    

     The biggest evidence that Relativity Theory has reported was the equivalence between gravitational mass and inertial mass, thus, what this means is that Gravity has an origin similar to inertia and, as we know, the inertia is closely related to movement.

      Let me try to relate the following, speaking without much accuracy, we can say that:   

     At rest, electrical charges can only produce an electric field, this is:




     In motion, electrical charges can produce electric and magnetic fields, so we have:




           The dislocation of the electric and magnetic field combined together produces a new field, the gravitational field, which can be designated as:




     Summarizing, in this first approach, we can just stay with this general idea which says that:

       With the dislocation of a field we can always define a new field. The movement of the electrostatic field produces a new field, the electromagnetic field. The dislocation of the electromagnetic field also produces a new field, the gravitational field!

      The dislocation of all of these fields moving in syntony is consolidated with the formation of an Electro-Magnetic-Gravitational Field, which requires the production of Gravitational Waves!

      The unification of the Electricity with Magnetism has caused a great discovery: the formation of Electromagnetic Waves;

      The unification of Electromagnetism with Gravity also has a remarkable implication: the formation of Gravitational Waves!

         At this moment, I am reminding me of a quote from Einstein:

      "If you have an idea and at first glance, it does not look like completely absurd, then there is no salvation to it." - Albert Einstein -.

      Take then a more practical example. Let us remember the diagram of the Electromagnetic Spectrum and its natural radiation.

       From one extreme to another there are several known radiation distributed according to their frequency.


- Electromagnetic Spectrum -


        As you can see in this spectrum it does not appear any gravitational waves. This is where the adversary makes the mistake!

      As you can see, at the beginning of the spectrum we have the highest frequency of all: the Gama radiation with a frequency close to 1020 Hz; after that we have the X-rays 1018 Hz; Ultraviolet 1015 Hz, at 1014 Hz the Visible Light radiation, and then we move towards the lowest frequency: Infrared 1012 Hz, at 1010 Hz we have the Microwaves and Radio Waves which can be extended up to 104 Hz or more and ... does the spectrum ends here?!

     As we know, a package of energy corresponds to a quantum of energy. The value of this quantum depends on the frequency of light, which is given by the equation E = h.f      The greater the energy carried, the greater the frequency of radiation. The higher the frequency, the lower the wavelength. Similarly, the lower the frequency, the greater the length of the wave.

      Lets us make a simple attempt to estimate the frequency of a Gravitational Wave, through the equation E = h.f

      But first we need to know what is the energy of a Gravitational Field.

      In order to make an approximate estimation for this value we can make use of the relative intensity of the forces that we know. The strongest force of Nature is the Strong Force with the greater intensity, next on this scale we have the Electromagnetic Force, 137 times weaker - a very interesting number - then we have the Weak Force 106 times weaker than the Strong Force, and finally the weakest force of all and at the final of the spectrum comes Gravity 1040 times weaker than the Strong Force.

      With this information, we can say that the magnitude of Gravitational Energy has got an absolute value about 10-40 or 1 / 1040.    

 Doing a simple calculation ...

E = h.f   <=>   E/h = f 


<=>  f =  E / h  <=>  f =  10-40 / ( 6,6 x 10-34 )


<=> f = 6,6 x 10-6 Hz


     This will be a good approximation to the frequency of a Gravitational Wave, which shows that it is a wave of low frequency, very low. Its frequency is lower than the Radio Waves, and therefore its wave-length must be greater than the Radio Waves.

      Let us see if we can get some approximation to the wavelength value.   Knowing that:


f . λ = 2π. c


<=>  λ  =  2π. c / f


<=>  λ  = 2π. 3 x 108 / 6,6 x 10-6


<=> λ  = 1,6π x 1014 m


     This means that the length of a Gravitational Wave is very big, very big indeed!  We should seek it at the end of the spectrum, just below the Radio Waves ... we will need a very big antenna!