Chapter XIV




" Theoretically possible,

     infinitely difficult. "

- John Gribbin -


      Most of the contemporary physicists do believe that there are, currently, two types of Physics:

   In one side we have the Classical Physics and at the other side we have the Quantum Physics. And what does this mean?

      For example, the quantum physicists say that the electrons in an atom have quantum energy levels very well defined and that this explains why the atoms are stable.

      Then, they consolidate their argument saying that the Classical Physics obeys to none quantum principles. The argumentation and the reason why this happens is because they consider that the electrons are quantum objects and, therefore, they do not share the same properties of Classical Physics.

      Please do pay a little bit more of attention in this last sentence. Look well, to avoid the paradox, physicists defined the following:

      Accelerated electrical charges in a none quantum level do emit continuously radiation;

      But, accelerated electrical charges in a quantum level do not emit any kind of radiation.

      Therefore, the physicists do divide Physics in two parts: the Quantum Physics and Classical Physics, with very distinct properties.

      In my point of view, this is another crucial mistake ... the Physics of this Universe, as far as I know, is unique and only one!



      It seems that all objects in the Universe have to be in a circular movement. With a specific trajectory which seems to be responsible for the delicate balance of Nature.

      Is this kind of movement, somehow privilege? Some sort of a Golden Movement?!

      This circular motion is indeed very interesting. If we look closer, this type of movement seems to be present in all the main structures of the Universe and of Nature. Since the atom, the rotation of stars, the translation of planetary systems, the trajectory of comets and even in the movement of the Galactic disc ... everything has to be in rotation and in perfect harmony with this circular acceleration!

      Is this the Movement of Gold? This force associated with the circular motion seems to be the only constant … its presence it’s always revealed, both in the Micro as at the Macro Cosmos ... very interesting!

     However, the orbits of these stars, planets and particles are not exactly circular. Such orbits are elliptical. And why are the orbits elliptical?

      Again, apparently, we seem to be doing a simple question ... but I wonder why are the orbits elliptic?!

      Knowing that the orbits are elliptical and are in accordance with the laws of Kepler; that the orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun occupying one of the focus; it does not explain why are these orbits elliptical.

      Why would Nature prefers elliptical orbits rather than perfectly circular. What was the reason that made these orbits elliptical?

      If the Gravitational Force and the interaction between the planets and the Sun was only depending of the Newton’s law for Gravity; of the Gravitational constant, masses and the distances between the objects involved; then, once we know that the Force of Gravity must be distributed in a uniform way around the objects, producing and equal intensity throughout these stars and around them , distributing it equally ways to both sides just like a sphere shield and in accordance with the Law of the inverse of the square of the distance, shouldn’t the orbits of the planets be round and circular?!

      Well, but the orbits are elliptical ...

     Let us imagine if everything had a circular orbit, what consequences would that lead and produce in Nature?

      As Gravity acts in accordance with the law of the inverse of the square of the distance, in general we know that the more distant to the source of Gravity the weaker is the gravitational interaction. If the orbit of a planet would have a circular trajectory, this kind of movement would have direct implication in stabilization of the orbit of the planet, putting this one in a critical situation and risk.

     A circular trajectory would conditionate the balance of the system, because it would be enough and sufficient to note that the inner part of the planet is always under a greater gravitational pull; the side of the planet closer to the sun and closer to the central source of Gravity; the side of the planet which is far less from the Sun is constantly more attracted and this little attraction is enough to divert the planet a few millimeters of its route. As the gravitational force is already a little stronger in this innermost orbit, the side closer to the center would be even more attracted leading the planet to consecutively inner orbits and so on, that slightly attraction would lead that all the planets, sooner or later, would all fall into spiral towards the Sun!

     Not to mention the other external gravitational influences, which would make the balance of the system even more precarious.

      Now, let us rephrase the question: Why are the orbits elliptical?

      And we can conclude with the following answer: Because Nature is smart.

      Nature is very intelligent and knows perfectly well that a circular orbit would not work.

      To avoid this balance too much unstable, Nature found a better solution: Nature made the orbits elliptical

     An elliptical orbit has its advantages: First, this type of orbit requires that the speed of the planet cannot be constant. When the planet is closer to the Sun it feels the gravitational force of attraction and this makes the earth get acceleration, thus, gains more speed, as such, carries more Kinetic Energy and a greater Inertia.

      When the planet is nearest the Sun (perihelion), this is when the velocity vector is perpendicular to the gravitational pull and it reaches the maximum value and the inertia reaches also its maximum value, so the planet continues its route but now to a point farther from the Sun (aphelion). On its path the speed of the planet is decreasing due to the gravitational pull that pulls back, successively reducing the degree of inertia of the planetary traveler, until the speed reaches a minimum and the planet is forced to turn back, powerless, this planet has no more chance to fight the gravitational pull constantly in action, recovering its trajectory closer to the sun and it follows again the same cycle again.

      This type of movement is practically constant and eternal, just like the movement of a pendulum, and prevents the collapse of the planets in spirals.

      The secret of this movement is reflected in a slight unbalance between two forces: the Centripetal Force (where the gravity pulls the planet for an innermost orbit) and the Centrifugal Force ( where inertia requires that the planet moves far away in to a more external orbit).

     Let us remember that a grandfather clock the Mechanical energy is preserved and the system is self-sufficient and we do not need to constantly push the pendulum to make the clock work.

     This form of movement is almost magical, always constant in time and very precisely. It's like a perpetual motion machine, eternal in time, or almost ... just need ‘someone’ to give the original rap and the very first ticking.

      Now, from the Astrophysics in to Microphysics:

      Nature provides many analogies, as if this was not the same Universe that we are considering.

      Also within the atom there is movement and acceleration, in fact, there is a lot of acceleration. We can look at the atom as if it was a constellation of particles instead of a constellation of planets. But what allows the balance of this little system, how can we understand the electrodynamics stability of an atom and its constituent particles?

      It is known that in this case, we can discard the almost gravitational pull. What keeps the electrons attached together and close to the core is the electromagnetic influence.

      In general, we can set the same type of question: if opposite charges attract and if electromagnetic force between protons and electrons is also attractive, how come the electrons do not precipitate into the nucleus?

      In order to answer this question, we could adopt the same model of Gravity, and conclude that, within the atoms, the electrons do not remain in circular orbits, and they also move around the nucleus with velocity and acceleration, we could assume that they also found the solution of balance if they describe 'elliptical orbits'.

      There is, in fact, a model description of the electrons orbits. The design of these models shows that the orbits of the electrons are three-dimensional ellipsoid. In this case, the 'elliptical orbits' have something more to add ... these 'elliptical orbits' are related with the 'quantum jumps', which is the physical process that moves the electron closer and farther from the nucleus. The energy changing state … to move from one level to another an electron must perform a jump …

      Currently, there are two major issues that most worry the particle physicists:

      The first, is to know why accelerated electric charges emit radiation only when they make a transition between energy levels, and when they are in their ground state they do not emit electromagnetic radiation;

     The second, is to understand why these accelerated electric charges in their ground state do not lose all of their energy and radiation.

      The first part of question is quite simple to explain, the second, already requires a bit more attention, careful and abstraction.

      It appears that the emission of electromagnetic radiation only occurs when an electron moves into a lower energy level. Only in the fundamental energy level is that the atom recovers its natural state of balance and in this specific orbital the electron no longer emits electromagnetic radiation.

     So far everything looks right. The problem now consists in understanding why this accelerated electron around the nucleus, in its fundamental state, does not emit any kind of radiation.

      Maybe the main problem relies on we continue to search for the wrong type of energy!

      Although the atom in its fundamental state does not emit electromagnetic energy, we may not ever forget that this atom continues to emit energy ... delivering another source of energy into space ... Gravitational Energy, or more precisely, Gravitational Radiation!

      We could speculate that Quantum Transitions allows emitting Electromagnetic Waves; and that, Quantum Stability emits Gravitational Waves.

      This will solve our problem that accelerated charges do continuously emit some kind of radiation. The atom doesn’t stop of emitting radiation. The radiation never ceases to be emitted, the only particularity is that the atom emits two forms of radiation: the Electromagnetic Radiation and Gravitational Radiation!

      Within this model we could consider the presence of waves of energy in the form of Gravitational Radiation ...

      Now the second part of question:

      Let us picture and imagine an atomic nucleus that needs to be protected from the outside. The shield is made involving the nucleus of an electrical atmosphere with a negative charge, electron particles. This electrical atmosphere protects the core of the constant bombardment of foreign particles, very energetic, as photons.

      A photon can come from all directions, that is why the density of negative charge must be very well distributed throughout the atom, with a homogeneity density involving the nucleus. In this way, the electrons are not properly located, in the form of concentrated particles, their density and their electrical charge is distributed almost uniformly expanded around the nucleus. Therefore we can say that the electron is everywhere and anywhere ... that they have the gift of ubiquity!

      And what happens when a photon collides with the atom, with this electrical atmosphere?

      We can say that at this moment the negative atmosphere absorbs energy; that the energy delivered by the photon is absorbed by an electron.

      But what is exactly happening at this precisely moment that the electrical atmosphere absorbs the photons energy?

      Now ... the most abstract part of the process: When the photon collides with the electrical atmosphere it materializes the electron at that point and this extra energy allows the electron to achieve a higher energy level and a more distant orbital. We should note that with the absorption of energy it happens the concentration of the electrical charge, the materialization of the electron as a distinct particle, and this process allows the electron to gain freedom and enough energy to repel himself from the nucleus, with this process the radius of the atom is changed, becoming larger.

      Note that the absorption of energy does not change the value of the electron charge, it only excites the particle, making it more energetic, because the electric charge, as we know, is a Universal Constant.

      If the radius of the atom is changed, but the amount of negative charge is the same (we can still relate the atom as having the exact same number of electrons), but now we can say that the electrical density is more expanded, so the density of charge per unit volume is lower. In the periphery of the atom, in a more distant point, the electrical charge has got more freedom, because it does not feel that much of attraction from the nucleus, but it also has less electrical energy density, once we know that as the radius increases the electrical density is more expanded, and this lower density is insufficient to impulse the electron to leave and abandon the atom, therefore the desertion of the electron is not possible.

     This is the point and the exact moment in time that allows the entering of the Electromagnetic Force of attraction between protons and electrons, which begins to be felt. Because, this force also works at the same way as the law of the inverse of the square of the distance and the strength of the proton from inside the nucleus begins to attract the negative charge involving the atom, reducing the radius of the atom into a shorter value, and increasing the density of the negative electrical charge of the atom.

      During this process the electrons themselves are powerless to escape the attraction of the nucleus and they surrender! Inevitably weaken they lose the extra energy gained by issuing to external space electromagnetic radiation in the form of photons and they fall down into an inner orbital, closer to the nucleus. And this is when another photon collides with the atom and it begins the same process again ... ad infinitum!

      ... The photon leaves the atom … the photon enters the atom; it is energy coming in and it is energy that comes out ... this process is repeated in time in a constant and very precisely way ... just like a pendulum!


      Before finalizing our theme of Gravitational Radiation, let us highlight a very common experience, absolutely simple and almost trivial.

      For example, let's think about what happens when a piece of metal is gradually heated:

      What we are doing is to provide energy to the metal. What happens within the atoms of the metal is that the electrons are absorbing energy and that induces the necessary excitement that causes the electrons to move more rapidly, in a constant stage of more agitation. Since electromagnetic radiation is produced when ever electrical charges are excited, every time an electron is accelerated, the metal begins to transmit electromagnetic radiation in the form of heat radiation, or more precisely, infrared radiation, so the metal achieves a higher temperature and gets heated. If we continue to heat the metal, before seeing any visible radiation, the metal gets a little bit more heated and the particles begin to vibrate a little faster. With the increase of energy also increases the frequency, until it reaches a point where the metal begins to emit visible light. If we continue to provide energy, the visible light, is initially red, then turn into yellow, then white and finally blue.

      So far, nothing new. All seems well ...

      When we start heating the metal we are causing the agitation of the several electrons constituent of the material, and so they acquire enough energy to produce low-energy quanta with a large wavelength in the form of infrared radiation. Later, with continued heating, we can verify that there is enough energy to start to release some amount of average frequency and average wavelength, thus, it will only be released some radiation of average energy, which corresponds to visible light. And finally, it starts to show up some quanta of high frequency, responsible for the releasing of a shorter wavelength, which corresponds to the ultraviolet radiation.

      This would be the logical process of a metal heating. However, although the theory says that there are many electrons capable of producing low-energy quanta and with a long wavelength, what we see and what the experience show is that, that is not the case! In fact, there is very little emission of low energy radiation with long wavelength!

      This extraordinary subtlety escapes to any theoretical explanation.

      Let us look carefully at the following graphic, which relates the emission of radiation from a heating object: 


- Radiation emitted by a hot object -


       This graph shows the emission of radiation from a heated object. At the right side of the graphic we have the Infrared ( long waves ) and at the left side we have the Ultraviolet and Visible Light ( short waves and high frequency ). In this graphic, in which it would be expected to find a large emission of long waves radiation with a very low frequency ...if we look closer at the chart … we nearly don’t find the emission of the long wave radiation! How strange! Doesn’t anyone think that this is a little bit strange? It appears that there is some radiation missing! Where did it go all the energy absorbed? Where are the long waves?!

      If supposedly there is more electrons with enough energy to emit such a wavelength, so, why aren’t they present? Where are the long wavelengths?

      It appears that the electrons have a certain difficulty in producing high wavelengths, and consecutively, low frequencies.

      According to the Planck constant, the unit of a photon energy is designated as a quantum and this package transports a minimum value of energy: 6,626 x 10-34 Js, where the Joule is a measure of energy per second, and this value is very small.

      There is a minimum quantity of energy. And why is there a minimum energy? Shouldn’t the emission of electromagnetic radiation start from value number zero? But no ... there is a minimum quantity of energy. Subtle but curious ... very curious ...

      What occurs in practice is that the spectrum of emission of electromagnetic waves starts from a minimum value of energy ... which corresponds to the Planck constant.

      Below this value, it is not possible to produce Electromagnetic Energy ... but it is possible to produce another kind of energy, right below the Planck scale, an energy whose value is the order of 10-38 or 10-40 ... that energy is the Gravitational Energy or Gravitational Radiation!

      The long wavelengths, the low frequencies are not in the form of electromagnetic radiation ... they are in the form of Gravitational Radiation!

      These are the small subtle messages that Nature provides us, giving us the possibility to see and notice the little details. And that is why Gravity is the weakest of all forces!

     In Nature, there is no Law of Casualty  ... personally I do not believe that there is undefinition and indetermination in Nature or laws of fortune. It seems that everything happens as a result of a cause-effect relationship of previous events, and everything seems to be intentionally organized with a sense and practical application.

      The Physics takes us to conclusions and thoughts ever more interesting and surprising, which gives Nature a huge potential of functional intelligence!

      Everything works perfectly ...