Chapter XVI

 

Quantum Theory of Gravity

 

2. QUANTIZATION OF MATTER

 

"The atoms are not things."

- Werner Heisenberg -

 

      In general, in Physics, a field is always associated with a particle and the existence of Higgs Boson would explain why all bodies have a tendency to resist a change of speed. That is, the fact that all bodies have inertia is seen, according to this theory, as if they were immersed, involved and surrounded by a Higgs Field that offers resistance to the movement of matter, just like the same way as an object that moves in a fluid and feel forces of viscosity.

      This particle has not yet been detected. And it is this particle that physicist want to discovered at the LHC, Large Hadron Colisor, in Geneva.

      It seems important ...

      Physicist  do work very hard and accelerate their research in order to find evidence of the Higgs Boson among the many traces of mixtures of particles collisions.

      Higgs Boson has also been baptized with another name, the Particle of God. The reason why this happens is because it is general believed that this particle is closely linked to the origin of mass, to the fundamental constitution of particles, to the inner structure of matter… the Quantization of Matter!

      This is a subject of great interest to all of us scientists and to any physicist, a subject which is still extremely difficult to explain: therefore, the limits of the final division of matter, the quantization of mass and its physical origin.

      Let us first start by making a slight tour inside a Particle Accelerator.

     Replications of Nature show us the same particles but with slightly different relative mass, thus, whenever an accelerator increases the energy it is obtained a Standard Particle Model, which corresponds exactly to the same particles with the same characteristics of electrical charge and spin, but with only one difference that is, heavier mass with more weight.

      Whenever the energy increases  ... it also increases the mass of particles. This situation probably happens, because energy must provide mass! If we are only increasing energy ...

      For this order, if we continue to increase energy, we still get the same particles, and possibly many other new and different particles, but still with heavier weights, more unstable and with a life time very ephemeral. Because the energy of our Universe is not suited to the existence of these particles ...

      In my opinion the Particles Accelerators create virtual Universes ... and contrary to what they wish to offer, these high energies are far to recreate the conditions of our Primordial Universe.

      These repetitions of particles can be processed continuously and almost endlessly, but it requires some caution … it is possible that a particle accelerator powerful enough, instead of creating a very heavy particle, can create a Black Hole just over the surface of the Earth!

     It should be noted that there is an important idea to remember, all of these particles experimentally possible, are not the particles that exist around us, they don’t share of our space-time. So, if there aren’t most of these particles in the form of stable matter, if they don’t have a free existence in Nature, personally, I do not understand how come it is that this extensive classification of many particles can bring great benefit to the understanding of our Universe ...

      This long trail of highly unstable particles detected in Particles Accelerators as a result of frontal shock between protons and anti-protons, electrons and anti-electrons, can release much energy and with it many new artificial particles.

      For the moment it has been classified more than 400 of these new particles! This is a huge number of particles ...

      But the three fundamental and real quantum particles that form nuclei and atoms and the entire Universe, all entity with stable mass, since our own body to all objects that surrounds us, are just three: Quark up (top), Quark down (low) and the electron. These are the only stable particles with mass in this Universe.

      According to Einstein's equation E = m.c2 there is a proportion and an intimate relationship between Mass and Energy.

      The first objective verification of this concept consisted in the following experience:

       Starting by focus and fire a beam of accelerated protons on a Lithium sample, which is a light metal with atomic mass number 7, thus, in its nucleus are contained three protons and four neutrons. When the nucleus of the atom of Lithium was bombarded by a proton, this Lithium nucleus was divided and split up into two new nuclei of Helium, consisting now of two protons and two neutrons each. That is, the total sum of the initial particles was equal to the number of final particles:

     The Lithium nucleus (3 protons + 4 neutrons)  + 1 Proton bombarded = two Helium nuclei (4 protons + 4 neutrons). It is understood that the bombarded proton then collided with the nucleus of Lithium, initially joined inside the nucleus and in a final stage produces the split of two distinct groups designated as Helium nucleus, or also known as alpha particles. So that the total number of particles remained the same, as it was expected.

      However, there were some intriguing data in this experiment. The total sum of the masses of the two nuclei of Helium was less than the sum of the masses of the proton and the nucleus of Lithium measured initially. What this means is that in practice we have some missing mass!

      Moreover, the total energy resulting of this collision has shown to be greater than the individual sum of the energies of the proton and the core of the bombarded Lithium! The advantage was then a gain of energy!

      All experiments of this kind led to the same result and what we can understand from here is that all these collisions are the evidence of a fundamental transformation:  cause a loss of mass and an appearance gain of energy.

      This is the basic principle that runs a nuclear power building. For the process of nuclear fission of Uranium elements, there is a disappearance of a tinny amount of mass which is accompanied by a release of an enormous amount of energy!

      The possibility of this transformation was theoretically expected and predicted twenty years ago, in 1905, by Albert Einstein, establishing this relationship in his famous expression E = m.c2.

     This equation is, nowadays, a final acquisition, however, we cannot forget that the reverse process may also occur. With this, I wish to say that Energy is also capable to turn into mass, the inverse transformation is also possible, according to the expression:

m = E / c2

 

      And this is the process that has been used in Particles Accelerators. Because the resulting mass only depends of the speed of the accelerated particles and of the energy of the bombarded particles.

      It is very logical that every time when the energy increases it is also seen and detected a rise in mass!

      What are the exact mechanisms by which this takes place, I do not know, I couldn’t say ...  this is the greatest secret of Nature!

     As well as understanding and decoding in which way the electromagnetic process is made and what are the exact mechanisms governing the production of electrical charge, I also cannot say ... the elementary charge of the electron is another of the greatest secrets of Nature. Despite electrical charges determine the existence of an electromagnetic field, however, we do not know why the electric charge is present, what is its genesis, what is the exact process that can bring to life this permanent charges , we do not know the laws that govern them, their intimate behavior which allows the existence of  this continuous electrical currents.

      However, the fact is that matter concentrates a huge amount of energy. And the lower the size of this mysterious substance that we wish to observe, the greater is the amount of energy needed to be spend and therefore the greater the complexity involved.

      This means that if we are to remove an electron from an atom, we must apply a certain amount of energy, corresponding to the energy of ionization. But if we are to remove a Quark from the nucleus of the atom, this process it is not so easy ...

      In fact, what experience have shown nowadays is that we haven’t been able to accomplish the nucleus ionization, it seems that we are still not capable to apply enough energy to ionize the core, that is, to remove a quark from the nucleus of the atom … or maybe we haven’t been applying the correct energy  ... so that the existence of a free quark as never been seen. This shows that the power of connection between quarks must be very high!

      The energy required to release electrical charges, electrons, from its atoms is about a few electron-volts. However, exciting a quark requires energy in the order of mega-electron volts.

     The forces between quarks are much more powerful than the electromagnetic and therefore offer greater resistance to the excitement.

     The fundamental limits of matter, its most minimal and small particles, designated as quarks, concentrate enormous amount of energy, a really huge quantity of energy ...

      In an analogy, with a very brief and very simple exponential sequence, we can remember of the value for Atomic Energy (Atomic Bomb), after that we could consider the Nuclear Energy (Hydrogen Bomb) and going on the following scale we might get an idea of how high is the Quarkonic Energy!

      The boundaries of matter involve a large amount of energy, because limits of matter are nothing more than a concentrated form of energy. Inside this frontier, the matter consistence, is the purest form of energy!

      Leaning at the table in which I’m writing on, the soundness of this table relies in an appearance, as a result of forces that bind the atoms together. It is not a result of the concentration of matter. This force of resistance is a result of an equilibrium and balance between atomic forces, between molecules that are strong enough to produce the consistency of all that surrounds us. But this table is composed, mainly, of empty space!

      Our entire body is in fact composed mainly of empty space, which somehow it seems solid, concrete, material ... but in reality it is not.

      You can’t even imagine how empty matter can be ... this mysterious substance and its apparent density comes only from the field and energy concentration.

      If we were to consider the actual amount of matter that fills a single atom, we will conclude that this ‘object’ is made of, essentially, over 99% of empty space!

      And its constituent particles that seem apparently to be solid, are only a result of the scale in which we are trying to observe them.  If we could observe them more closely, we will see that everything vanishes in a filled of forces that are unimaginable strong and intense ... because atoms are not 'things'!

      But we are still carrying the preconceived opinion that matter is solid, and as such it must have a minimal measure, a quantum portion. If the charge of the electron follows a minimum value which is 'e', it is believed that, in a similar way, mass must follow the same minimum standard which is 'm'.

     Therefore, we unceasingly search for the minimum and indivisible amount of matter. It is developed many efforts in order to quantify the old Gravity, the Quantization of Mass, the final limits of matter, because it is believed that everything in the Universe has got a quantum unit ...

     The quantization of matter, the basic unit of mass, they will not find it, because it does not exist … not in that way ...

      What evidence do we have to find that the material things are solid, made of a consistent substance and, consecutively, with a quantum unit?

      If we really see with our mind how do we pick up an object with our hand ... if we really reflect on how this simple action takes place, we will discover the correct answer about the quantization of matter ...

      If you reflect a little on this subject, you will see that the answer to this question is only one: which is that, in Nature nothing can be touched!

      Each particle is composed of an individual field, independent and very strong. We never actually touch the objects. We never really make a real contact with them at all.

     Everything interacts through forces and fields. The touch of matter is an illusion, a forbidden possibility in our Universe. As such, the existence of dense and compact units of matter, the quantification of mass  ... would violate this major principle of Nature, because a field is composed by concentrated lines of energy, but these lines never touch, never cross ... and matter is the purest form of energy.

      The best idea that we can have to imagine what is mass, is visualizing it as energy in motion.

     If we relate Newton's second Law of Motion F = m.a with the formula of Electric Field F = Q.E, we can say that:

 

m.a = Q.E

 

m = Q. E. / a

 

      This will be more legitimate formula to explain the concept of matter.

      We can say that the fundamental substance of matter is the state acquired by a charge submitted and exposed to an accelerated energy field.

      This would be the best approach for the definition of mass. Therefore, density does not represent the amount of mass per unit volume. The density of matter represents the amount of energy that exists in a given volume.

      The mass is a fictitious structure, a shield, a resistance, a surface field, consisting of energy in a dynamic equilibrium.

     If by any chance we could interfere and disrupt this balance, the object would vanish in their place would appear a huge explosion of energy!

      The quantization of the matter is not possible because there are no real units of mass, thus, there are no minimum units of matter! The material field itself is an illusion of Nature! Maybe this is an idea a little difficult to explain, because we are used to see things, the material objects ... in fact, it is hard to explain that they are not really there, physically and in a material way.

      We can consider matter as dense energy holograms, as knots in the field.

      According to Einstein's equation E = m.c2, the theory tells us that energy has mass and that mass is a form of energy. This is so true, a grandfather clock that oscillates is slightly heavier than one that is stopped, because the kinetic energy of the pendulum has got mass!

     Indeed, things seem to have mass because they have Energy in Motion. Objects do not have mass inside. Objects do have moving energy. As faster as something moves, the more energy it gains; and the more energy an object has, more massive it becomes.

      This idea, that matter is a form of energy or a field of forces, is not new and was already present in many minds in the past.

     In 1844, Faraday has demonstrated that his ideas were too much advanced for that time. His work was publically presented for the first time to the Royal Institution, consisting of two studies with new ideas about lines of forces and electromagnetic fields. In its vision of success he anticipated the prospect of Quantum Field Theory of the XXI century, considering a replacement for the concept of atom, arguing that there could not be a real difference between space and the atoms in space, defending that these are two versions and manifestations of the same substance and that both should be considered as mere concentrations of lines of strength, as knots in the electromagnetic field.

      With his visionary theory, Faraday rejected the concept of ether as well as real material particles. And in its place, left us a picture of a Universe consisting of nothing less than a web of fields in interaction!

      Another mind, also advanced for the time, carried the same idea as we can see by the following quote:

     "The Theory of Relativity teaches that matter represents an enormous reservoir of energy and that energy also means matter. Under these conditions, we cannot qualitatively separate matter and field, because the distinction between mass and energy is not really qualitative (...) the matter exists where there is a large concentration of energy (...) the distinction between matter and field is quantitative rather of qualitative. "- Albert Einstein-.

        It’s often read that Einstein wasted the second half of his life, in which he did not produce anything new or interesting.

      Once revealed such an important theory as the Theory of Relativity, nothing that could come after could be of a lower dimension or with a smaller size of importance.

      We can imagine the great pressure that he was being subject while he was trying to finish on time the final details of his theory. Maybe we had not understood the message he wanted to send us but wasn’t able to complete ... a message that he already knew its contents and yet didn’t know how to show us ...

    "We can look at matter as the regions of space where there is an extremely strong field (...) the field is the only reality." - Albert Einstein-1938.

     The basic idea that we all know and learn very easily, that in the common matter the origin and source of Gravity comes from the quality of mass, must be abolished and replaced by the New Theory of Gravity.

      For all the reasons demonstrated here, I feel in the obligation to note that Gravity is not a quantum phenomenon, but an atomic phenomenon. Therefore, we must conclude that ... there is no need to build a Quantum Theory of Gravity!     

      This reasoning follows that if the Force of Gravity does not exist as original force of the Cosmos, there is also no messenger and no particle that mediates this field ... there exists no such particle as the Graviton!

      As it is also impossible to quantify matter, because matter is energy ...

      And there are 3000 researchers in the Particles Accelerator of Geneva searching for ghost particles!