Chapter XX




"Calculate what man knows and there is no comparison

with what he doesn’t know. "

- Chuang Tzu -


      The Problem of the Horizon has a similar resolution. Everything relies in the fact that we have considered that the four main forces of Nature are innate to the Cosmos.

      As it has been demonstrated, the main forces did not all emerged with the Big Bang, these fundamental forces also had an origin and a natural evolution.

      For this particular problem, what is at issue here is the combination of photons with the period of Inflation.

      During this inflationary period, in which the Universe underwent in a rapid expansion, the creation of the space itself happened so fast that even exceeds the speed of light!

      This quickly expansion creates gaps and little pieces of disconnected horizons, making impossible any explanation for a uniform and coherent physical interaction.

      If the space expands faster than the light spreads, automatically emerges regions not exposed to the light, thus, the whole space should be filled by regions with different visual horizons, that is, regions that cannot see each other.

      Being the expansion of space faster than light spreads, it will infinitely expand the distance that separates those points in the space from the rays of light that pass through, and these rays of light will never be able to achieve that space.

     Looking at the Universe today, and so that light could uniformly cover its entire space, the speed of light should be considerably higher, mainly or almost infinite, and it is not. When, in fact, we contemplate the sky on a dark night we do not seen empty regions in the darker sky, areas with large gaps of light. The telescopes and image satellites show us a picture of a deep sky very homogeneous, isotropic and perfectly harmonious.

      The first evidence for this problem is that there are no disconnected horizons … there aren’t any … at least in this Universe. That is our greatest evidence!

      It is true that the radius of the Universe itself extends far beyond of what we see or measure. But the problem that arose for the predictable existence of these regions in space, with small radius, distinct visual horizons, and the fact that we still did not find them, and the enormous period of time that has been given in order to find them and to justify why the Universe presents us only one distinct horizon, all of the efforts and the many solutions and explanations that failed but which still continue, might be easily resolved if we assume that there were no photons in the period in which the Inflation occur, thus, there is no Problem of the Horizon to be resolved!

      Really … if we just change one single little piece of this enormous puzzle which is Physics, everything starts to run well and naturally, without obstacles, without any problems ... no inconsistencies! The changing and the introduction of this simple criterion facilitates the entire History of the Cosmos.

      It's a little bit like the theory of the Inflation. We have no direct evidence that this event really happened, we just know that with the inflation we can solve all problems!

      With these new data, if I may ... I would like to have the honor to make some changes:

      As you can see, this table shows us the most important dates and events which marked the History of our Universe ... From my point of view I have to admit, I do not agree on almost nothing with this information!    




























- Evolution of the Universe -


      Now .. yes! It is much better! Simple, refreshing and without complications!











≈ 0 cm

Big Bang

10-43 s

1032 K

1019 GeV


Gravity is strong. It’s still needed a Quantum Theory of Gravity.


10-37 s

1029 K

1016 GeV


Grate Unifying Force. Strong Force; Weak Force and Electromagnetic Force join together in one single force .


10-36 s

1029 K

1015 GeV



10-33 s

1027 K

1014 GeV


Predominance of matter rather than antimatter. End of Hadronic Age.


100 s

1010 K

10-4 GeV


Nucleus synthesis. Formation of the first  Hydrogen and Helium atoms.


106 years

103 K

10-1 GeV


Photons dissociates from matter. Origin of the Deep Field radiation.

1010 years

3 K

10-3 GeV


Today. Formation of Galaxies and Life.

1040 years




Wastage of matter. Proton’s Disintegration.