Chapter XXI




"I live in a very small house but my windows

open to a very big world. "

- Confucius -


     In the field of Astrophysics it occurs amazing compressions of matter!

     For example, when the stars exhaust all of their fuel, they begin to contract, and under action of its own weight they begin to shrink ever more, becoming into a fraction of its original size.  Some of these stars suddenly implodes and form extremely dense stars, confined into a very short radius. We can imagine that stars larger than the Sun may be compressed up to the radius of the city of Lisbon.

     We say that the gravity intensity which exists in those collapsed stars is so high that even atoms themselves are force to implode, being almost crushed. And also the electrons are forced to merge inside the atom, being pushed into the nucleus. The atomic structure is broken as a consequence of the 'gravitational' compression of matter that involves it. In this new type of matter, with no electronic orbital, no electrons around the nucleus, it is given the name of Barionic Degenerate Matter, and for this to occur it is necessary to concentrate 100 million tonnes of matter into a single cm3!

      When the electrons are forced into the atomic nuclei they combine with protons and are transformed into neutrons. This new type of matter, consisting entirely of neutrons, offers sufficient resistive pressure capable to stop the ‘gravitational’ collapse of the star. The star stabilizes, and we say that it has become a neutron star.

      A neutron star contains, probably, the most rigid material of the Universe. But even this is not entirely uncompressible, if the star has sufficient initial matter, this material can be further crushed, and the star collapses completely. The degenerated nuclei of matter suddenly implodes in a fraction of a second, leaving behind a Black Hole!

      The Black Holes are simply mysterious! Where did it go, all that absorbed matter?

      Until this moment, there is no satisfying theory that reveals the mystery surrounding the fate of the whole matter that imploded! Is it just gone?!

     If I can still remember, in the Universe nothing is lost, everything is transformed!

     It is believed that the center of a black hole concentrates an infinite density of matter, considering that gravity in that region is also infinite. When an infinite appears in a physical theory, it becomes completely haunted! The physicist do not feel very comfortable with infinite numbers ... therefore, they usually do not appreciate black holes; or they don’t seem to like very much singularities or infinite states of space and time, because under this framework it’s not valid the Laws of Physics that we have.

     For a long time, physicists have been skeptical about such physical entities; were reluctant to believe that such extreme situations of material objects could possibly occur. But the black holes were detected and, thus, they were not merely the result of excessive imagination of some theoretical physicists.

     It has been given much thought about what is at the bottom of this well and very shaped funnel ...

     This type of vortex shape that appears immediately in our minds send us a wrong idea and a wrong image about what a black hole is.  I personally don’t appreciate very much the funnel shape … I prefer the geometry of the spheres ... the 'Bubbles of Oil'!

     As I said earlier, not everything that we learn in school is true. However, not everything is false! Far from it!

      One of the laws that we have learned in school, and most likely it will not be wrong, is the Law of Conservation of Energy.

      Looking at a black hole, suddenly and just for having a general view of this physical entities ... if it is supposed that gravitational energy in that place should be infinite, since the entire mass has been concentrated in a radius zero ... and looking around, we know that the gravity around these points in space is very strong ... but if the gravitational attraction was actually infinite ... we would not be here!

      Looking at others black holes spread throughout the Universe ... counting all of them, making the accounts, adding everything ... if the matter has disappeared completely and there is no infinite Gravity, then there is a violation of the Law of Conservation of Energy?! Is there a leak in this major principle of Physics? A ‘hole’ in the Conservation Law of Energy? Impossible! Impossible! … I refuse to believe so!

     This confirmation would completely change and reshape the Law of Conservation of Energy. I do not think that this statement is incorrect. But, after all, where does it go all of that energy from a black hole? To the end of a deep well?!

     Our Universe is not that strange. It will probably be, above all, logical!

     If we assume that there is no leak, then, there is only one chance left for us to try to save this immaculate law. If something is missing, then something else needs necessarily to appear!

     There is a new thing that is constantly appearing, expanding and evolving, entering in our Universe constantly, filling all the space around us, it has an ubiquitous feature and it is just in front of us … that is the Dark Energy!

     The existence of this new form of energy has been recently proposed, in 1998, when acquired data about the separation speed of the galaxies did not correspond with the predicted data. According to the theory of Big Bang, the constant expansion of our Universe should be governed by a particular value, however, it appears that the rate of expansion is much higher. The Dark Energy emerges as a justification to try to explain this rapid expansion of the Cosmos. 

      We know that the Universe is expanding and that the origin of this expansion came with the Big Bang, which has projected all space and matter, a bit like a classical explosion. However, the energy of this explosion is not falling, is not slowing down. Quite the contrary, the acceleration and speed of expansion of the Universe is expanding!

     Typically, the energy of a conventional explosion is lost, attenuated, diluted, until it ceases completely ... and never increases! In the case of the Big Bang, we are assisting to an explosion which instead of dissipating energy is wining it!

     To avoid this paradox, it was suggested the existence of a new force responsible for separating the Cosmos even faster and it was given the name of Dark Energy, which reminds a little the lost 'cosmological constant' of Einstein. From where does it come this 'cosmological constant' that stretches and distend the fabric of space-time imperceptibly?

     We cannot count on it as originating in the Big Bang, therefore, it must come from somewhere else. Somehow this energy seems to enter in our Universe, but not in a constant way, this energy seems to be emerging in a dominant way, because this dark energy has state to appear in increasing quantities. This energy is indeed immense. To get a clear idea, 70% of our Universe is composed of this Dark Energy!

     One of the main characteristics attributed to that dark energy is that it is naturally repulsive, or else, it acts as if it possesses Antigravity!

     Unlike the classical Gravity, this new type of gravity does not attract, rather the contrary, the nature of this force is naturally repulsive, or rather, it does not contain gravity on its own! Indeed, it is a very unusual feature of the Cosmos: Antigravity. Most of the ordinary people never heard of such a force, however, it exists and there is only one way to get something that does not produce its own Gravity, and what is that way?

     According to what we have seen earlier, the evolution of the classical Gravity is a late production of matter, which can only arise when the atomic structure is stabilized, so that, we can say: without an atomic structure and without an atomic electrosphere there is no Gravitational Force, and we can add up, if we wish, that at a quantum level the elementary nature of matter is Antigravitational. In the specific case of the complete Degenerate Matter it is marked by the collapse of its gravitational structure; by the rupture of the electrosphere of the atom, once the electrons are forced to fall inside the nucleus and the atom collapses on itself. So, after a while, this new type of matter will behave as if it had a negative pressure which produces natural absence of Gravity, losing its compression, assuming a repulsive constant. We can say that, this new form of matter-energy density will behave in a different way, assuming a negative pressure and density. And on the contrary of the positive density of common baryonic matter that we see spread away throughout the Universe, this new type of energy, which has a different density, will try to find a new way to break through, another place through space which it can escape. Therefore, we can say that this new form of Negative Energy flows 'out' of our visual Universe.

     However, this energy does not disappear, but rather, involves us and surrounds us in all directions. If you noticed, when we first started our Natural History of the Universe and the moment of Big Bang itself, there was a new form of energy already present, a primitive energy, the Pure Primordial Radiation, which has, in its basic features, the same descriptions and properties of the Dark Energy itself. My question is: are these two types of energy one and the same thing?

      If the characteristics of Dark Energy are so similar to the original energy in the beginning of the Universe, then, we might consider that they are the same form of energy. We could consider this form of energy as an elementary cosmic fluid, the base that allows and supports the development and evolution of everything, and hence the transformation of this energy into barionic energy; in the common energy which supports the construction of atoms, planets, stars and life itself. This would be the raw material of the Cosmos!

     And much more than a simple raw-material, this form of energy incorporates the very support of space-time itself! So that we can consider it as the Fifth Supreme Force of the Universe!

      First, let me just mention that we should not confuse Dark Matter with Dark Energy, because there is no relationship between these two concepts. The only similarity is on the name that they were assigned, which is ‘dark’. Probably because it is a word that refers to something that we cannot see or understand … Finally, we can see now and it is clear that you all must have noticed that I wish to relate this dark energy that enters and comes in, with the black energy that escapes and goes out. This means that the energy of the black holes did not gone away or simply disappeared inside an endless an infinite tunnel!

      All the chaos created by these complex structures, all of the entire monopoly of high entropy generated in these complex systems, the disintegration of matter in Black Holes is recovered and recycled in the form of Dark Energy by the Universe.

      Again, in the Universe, nothing is lost … everything is transformed!