Chapter XXIII




"At the entrance of the gates of the Temple of Science

It is written the words: 'You must have faith’. "

- Max Planck -


      The problem of the infinite is directly related to the origin and the fate of the Universe.

      Both Math and Physics cannot deal very well with infinite numbers, but these sciences predict that our Universe was originated in a Big Bang full of infinity numbers! Starting in density, passing through temperature and ending in the curvature of space-time at the moment of the Big Bang, all of these properties are infinite in the field of Physics.

     When a Physics theory tries to address these issues it faces a major obstacle, the equations result in infinite and in uncertain parameters, which means, in practice, that we cannot develop a consistent theory to accurately describe the precise moment of the Big Bang. If we cannot make a correct interpretation or give a concrete physical meaning to a set of infinite values, we cannot correctly describe and predict the process involved, in this case, contrary to what people regularly think, the Big Bang is not a theory that describes the initial explosion which originated our Universe, the Big Bang is a theory that only describes the result of the explosion, from a certain moment in time. As such, it is not a complete theory, because it does not describe the exact moment of the explosion.

     These consequences arise from a very simple detail, which come from the fact that physicist considered that the entire Universe was originated in a spatial and temporal point with zero radius, and that this so compressed region is equal to a very compact dimension: a null or zero dimension.

      What is the meaning of a zero dimension?! What possible process is intended to be described in a null space-time dimension?!

      Isn’t it clear that we cannot obtain from these conditions any consistent or any coherent physical theory?

      But if physicists do can imagine physical processes that result from a zero space--time dimension, then surely, it is because they have a huge capacity of imagination, far better than mine!

     There is some speculation on which our Universe has existed for an infinite time before the Big Bang had occurred, under the form of a floating empty region, before it has started the phase of expansion.

     This seems to me an interesting approach. And in its theoretical formulation new phenomena begin to occur, peculiar phenomena which are not yet completely understood.

     If we turn back in time to the initial singularity, we reach to a point where the theory of Gravity is no longer valid, and that is where new phenomena begin to occur. For example, if we turn back enough time, until a time before the Big Bang had occur, the calculations show us a Universe that is actually in contraction, until it reaches to a point that allows the phase transition, the point which the contraction process ended and began the expansion movement that we observe today. This moment has happened when the Universe reached a minimum size, but finite. Even more amazing is if we try to go back further in time, the calculations show us a Universe that is growing, much more extended and colder ... ad infinitum.

     This theoretical speculation can lead us to suggest that there was not a proper beginning of the space and time when the Big Bang occurred, but that this exact time is only a state of transition from a duration of time much more vast.

     Using this new concept, we can use our imagination and turn back in time until the moment of the initial singularity, a time very close to the Big Bang; or if you prefer we can also move forward in time towards the total contraction of the Universe, the moment of the Big Crunch.

     Remember that the theory of Gravity is no longer valid from a certain value of density and temperature, because under these conditions we  obtain a new type of matter, the Degenerated Matter, and according to what we saw on the new model of Gravity, the nature of Gravity is not quantum but atomic.

     If this form of matter is isolated from a gravitational field, this type of matter is unable to produce its own gravity, because, as we have seen before, this attractive field is only present because the magnetic moment is distributed and transferred by the electromagnetic field. And if there are no electrons associated with atoms, or photons, there is no electromagnetic field, therefore, there isn’t also any gravitational attraction.

     This allows us to immediately eliminate the infinite gravities and the singularities addressed to these points. In this case, all we have to consider is that the intensity of Gravity, in a shorter radius increases and becomes each moment stronger, however, it will not assume an infinite value, but tend to a limit. From this limit the gravitational force ceases to exist and there is a phase transition, which defines the point where the uncontrolled contraction ends. At this precise moment, the Universe reaches its minimum but finite size, and the forces and fields of interaction that still exist in this limits of matter are monstrously strong, however, Nature has got a limit and so, as soon as Nature achieves this limit it will begin a new phase of uncontrolled expansion.

      Right now, you may all be wondering about what is that limit of Nature.

     Well, it will be a little as if Nature had reached the maximum stress and tension of its fundamental 'strings'. And if a force of tension has got a specific direction and tends to a limit, once this limit is exceeded, it breaks.  This rupture is a bit like an elastic that is broken. This reaction occurs in the opposite direction, and the enormous force of tension that has been accumulated is reattributed in order to give rise to an enormous force of expansion. This expanded energy has a new form, it does not have natural gravitational forces, the forces that control this new force are naturally repulsive, this energy is already known: it’s the dark energy.

      And what is it that accumulates this tension? What are these fundamental 'strings'?

     In this state of matter, the last force that will resist is the weak force produced by neutrons, beyond this limit we must considered another type of force, much stronger and even more fundamental, the strength force between quarks!

      And when there is a force, there is an involvement field; and where there is a field there are lines of force which define it; and as we know, these lines of force never get cross. Nature has a limit, it reaches a point where these lines of force are becoming each moment more intense because they are closer to each other, becoming each moment even more closer and closer and stronger, but there is an absolute interdiction on the Laws of Nature, which is that these lines can never cross, because in Nature nothing can get touched!

      Achieving the Constant of Repulsion is, therefore, inevitable!

     The intensity of these lines of force results from the response of the quarks to the values of energy involved. We can remember that the quark particles are stable when confined in the nucleus. The Principle of Asymptotic Freedom establishes that the confinement of quarks leads to a state of minimum energy and we know through experience that the more energy we provide to these particles, the more resistive they become, thus means, more tension they accumulate. What would be a practical way to obtain a constant of repulsion, by the ionization of the nucleus, which would only be possible when we obtain these huge values of energy. The rupture of this energy of connection between quarks has enough power to unchain a huge and colossal explosion! A new Big Bang …

      And so we would have a birth of a New Universe!

      A Phoenix Universe reborn from the ashes!

     The fate of our Universe is, in some way, already pre-destined. Probably we will only have two possible scenarios:

     Or the 'gravitational force' responsible for the attraction of matter exceeds the repulsive force of expansion and the Universe is bound to shrink and compact toward a Big Crunch, becoming a region increasingly dense and increasingly hot … a cosmic furnace.

     Or, the repulsive energy overcomes the attractive force - and this seems to me the most likely scenario - impelling the Universe to an endless expansion, making it an empty space, increasingly cold and completely inert ... a cosmic graveyard.

     If in the first hypothesis there is an endless increase of Kinetic Energy due to the constant raise of intensity of temperature; in the second hypothesis, the opposite occurs, and in this case the kinetic energy of particles is becoming smaller, their movement becomes slower, as the temperature goes down towards the absolute zero, -273 Kelvin, the kinetic energy of particles practically cease, but on the other hand  there is always a huge increase of Potential Energy.

     Summarizing, if in the first case the Kinetic Energy is headed towards a maximum limit; in the second case the Potential Energy is guided towards its maximum value.

      In both case, we have to consider the Principle of Energy Conservation. We know that the Mechanical Energy of the Universe, the sum of these two energies, must be kept, so that, the total mechanical energy of the Universe is always a constant.

     In the first case, we have already explored the extremes conditions of a Big Crunch and that its development results in the birth of a new Universe.

     For the second hypothesis the conditions are reversed, but the final destination is always the same, let's see how:

     There is nothing worse than reaching the limits of the Potential Energy, which I would like to call it as a False Potential. We will recall here a practical example, a typical case of a lake exposed to harsh and sever temperatures of winter.

     The phenomenon of overfreezing means that water can remain liquid even at temperatures below zero and under its freezing point. It is indeed possible to overfreez extremely pure liquid water and keep it fluid at a temperature of - 30 º Celsius, a negative temperature.

     If we approach to a lake, still in liquid state, but which is in a status of overfreezing, it will be enough just a very small touch, the most tinny contribution of energy, for the lake to start freezing and unchain a whole explosive proliferation of ice crystals, bringing the lake to congeal almost automatically! I advise you never to touch on something that has acquired the False Potential.

     Although the lake appears to be liquid and stable, in fact, this apparent stability is the most pure of the illusions. This overfreeze liquid is quite unstable and it is in a very precarious state of balance and equilibrium, and at the precise moment that we touch the lake, all of the Potential Energy accumulated is released.

     Many properties of matter are changed when overfreezed, one of them is Gravity. Not that this property has been changed, the only restriction is that this force does not have the same possibility or chance to manifest itself.

     Just like the attribution of Kinetic Energy in the form of heat produces an increases the gravitational attraction, as we saw in the experiment of Cavendish, the reverse process can also occur. Thus means that, a reduction of the Kinetic Energy of particles, can be achieve by exposing them to lower and negative temperatures, therefore, this process also leads to a decrease of the emission of gravitational energy.

     When the Universe reaches the absolute zero we can say that the kinetic activity of the particles ceases almost completely and that Gravity also freezes. The Universe is reduced to its minimum temperature, its minimum density, it achieves the False Potential.

     In this Universe filled mostly by vacuum and where there are no forces acting, Gravity forces or motion forces, the only new form of energy that may appear in this static Universe is the one which is naturally produced by a repulsive vacuum. But once that limit is reached, and vacuum acts contributing with its repulsive energy, so soon as it enters the smallest amount of energy in this Universe highly unstable, the high Potential Energy accumulated unchain a huge Cosmic Tsunami!

     This small disturbance of the vacuum releases all the accumulated Potential Energy. A huge wave of energy that comes and succumbs, leading to the collapse of the entire Universe!

     Fusions and fissions of Universes should occur regularly in the hyperspace, allowing the contribution of primary raw materials, new cosmic fluid, which will always be obtained through the Law of Conservation of Energy, so that it can always occur new creations of new Universes.

     This Essential Fluid of the Universe, the dark energy, might resurrect the concept of ether, in which this ether will be related with an Eternal Fluid. From both possibilities, we will always obtain an eternal Universe, with not beginning or end, a hyperspace of Oscillatory Universes, a Phoenix Multiuniverse!

      In any of the possible destinations for our Universe there is no infinite, Nature has always a limit. The contraction does not occur continuously and the expansion does not run forever.

      The only infinite that Nature allows, which is eternal and continuous, is the energy conservation.

      The energy cannot be created nor destroyed, so that the total energy of this Universe is a global constant. The soul of our own Universe is always conserved, because energy can naturally flow but it cannot disappear.

       The testimony of the fate of the Universe leads to an Equation of Continuity, in which the creation occurs in a continuous space-time process, timeless and infinite. Because time preserves its own duration, from the infinity to the infinity, from the eternity to eternity.

      And so we can consider us as part of a Universe of infinite life, which never began and will never end. In a way, this is a Universe that always existed and will always exist!

    "I say that the whole Universe is infinite because it has no end, no limit, or surface. I say that the Universe is not quite all infinite because from each part we can take each one of them is finite and the countless worlds it contains each one is also finite. "

     "It is not the physical senses that perceives the infinite, it is not from sense that is achieved that conclusion (...) it is the intellect that is responsible to judge and give reason of all absence things, separated from us by the distance of time and by the interval of space. " .

     "It would not be less bad if the whole space was not full and complete. And as a consequence the whole Universe would have an infinite dimension, and there would be innumerable worlds. The intelligible extension is eternal, necessary and infinite. ".

  - Filóteo, character in "About the infinity of the sky 'of Giordano Bruno -.

      The infinite is the most mysterious number of Mathematics, simultaneously absent and present, precise and vague, full and incomplete, perfect and imperfect … there are those who love it and some who avoids it!

     Nevertheless, the mathematicians have no major problems in using this number in their calculations: starting by considering Series as a sum of an infinite number of successive terms; an Integral as a sum of an infinite number of infinitesimal quantities; and a Derived as a ratio of quantities infinitely small.

     In parallel, Physics also uses this number in order to refer major events of the Universe: A Black Hole is an infinite in space and time; the Big Bang is an infinite in space and time; and the Vacuum’s Energy is also infinite in space and time!

     What is the true meaning of this infinite number?

     Using this number does not seem to cause many mathematically problems, but when it comes to give it a concrete physical meaning, that is when the confusion is install.

     According to what we saw previously, two of the three infinites are no longer an epistemological problem, and physicist may feel a little bit relieved, because we can remove the analogy of infinite in Black Holes and the infinite of the Big Bang.

      However, not to much relieved, because this reality does not extend to the Vacuum Energy. The vacuum, or the absolute emptiness, is not synonymous of nothing, it would be more correct to consider it as a mode of hibernation of matter. Simply because we just have to apply a minimum amount of energy on vacuum to stimulate the appearance of matter.

     To demonstrate the real existence of these virtual particles of matter in the empty vacuum, physicist have provided a practical experience. By passing a strong electric current through a vacuum chamber, it is possible to see and assist at the creation of real particles, perfectly observable!

     The energy of the vacuum cannot be associated with nothing, it is instead a level of oscillation and transition between a state in which there is nothing and a state in where there is something. The vacuum cannot be associated with emptiness, because anything can come out and be born from it!

     The emptiness is a latent state of matter, and the vacuum is the floating state of that potential in which virtual particles are constantly vacillating in and out of existence.

     These mysterious forces of vacuum, the infinite possible fluctuations of the quantum vacuum, are the properties of the amazing Energy of Nothing. What this energy translates is the uncertainty, that even in a small volume of vacuum there is no possibility of knowing the amount of energy that it contains!

     When we wish to make a rigorous interpretation of what this means, we are perplexed by the paradox that it represents.

      In practice, when this experience is conducted, all particles present in that region of space are removed in order to get an empty space and we think, according to a logical reasoning that by reducing the amount of matter present we are also reducing the existing energy.

     But what is concluded is that at the Zero Point Energy the number of virtual particles can appear in an infinite quantity.

     The paradox is: this means that the Zero Point Energy is not zero, it is unlimited! We can proceed our thought and say that the power of Zero is Infinite!

     And this conclusions can be deduced by the very own equations of Quantum Mechanics, but most scientists completely ignore it. They simply pretend that the energy at point zero is zero, although they know it’s infinite.

      Infinites and zeros are two curious numbers. There are even those who say that zero is the closest number to infinity. So, are these two numbers so distinct and different from each other?

     But it seems that we cannot deal very well with infinites and zeros. Can we simply exclude them from our equations?  What do these defendants have to say about the Laws of the Universe?

     These two numbers takes us back into the problem of the origin and fate of the Universe.

      The Problem of the Origin it only makes sense if we say that all began with the birth of the Universe: Time; Space; Matter ... For a common sense that requires that there has been a beginning, this implies accepting the existence of zero '0'.

     Moreover, we can shift the problem for the common sense which believes that everything has always existed in the Universe: Time; Space; Mater … This means accepting the existence of an infinite '∞'.

     A number almost complements the other because, in fact, they are very similar. They are so similar that we could speculate that origin and infinity coincide and coexist simultaneously ... the problems of infinites and zeros are eternally challenging the framework of logic.

     When an equation has an infinite, the physicists usually assume that there is something wrong, immediately admitting that the infinity has no physical meaning. How the physicist Richard Feynman would say:

     "The problem is that when we try to bring the calculations to a zero distance, the equation explodes up in our face and gives us answers without any sense, things like infinity. This has caused immense inconvenience when the Electrodynamics Quantum Theory was developed. People obtain an infinity in each problem which they were trying to calculate. "

     Infinites and Zeros have always been present behind the greatest puzzles of Physics:

     The infinite density generated by the gravity of a black hole is a division by zero in the equation of general relativity;

     The infinite energy of vacuum is a division by zero in mathematics of quantum theory;

     The creation of the Big Bang from the nothing is a division by zero in both theories.

     The illogical situations and the indeterminations, arise every time we try to make calculations with divisions by zero. Apparently, dividing by zero destroys the coherence of the mathematical and logical framework.

     However, instead of trying to understand what is the meaning and true expression of these solutions, the physicists succeeded in mastering the solution of the problem choosing another way, by passing it. In order to achieve and obtain the connection with logic, scientists simply banished ‘zero’ from the equations of Cosmos!

     This process of elimination of zeros is called Renormalization. "It is what I would call as a kind of crazy process." wrote Richard Feynman, despite of having won the Nobel Prize for having developed and perfecting the art of Renormalization.

     This process is extremely convenient and impose to physicist, however, not all agree with it. But, it is the only way to make the infinite to disappear, through the magical art of renormalization.

     In practice calculations, it is not made all the way until the zero distance. Calculations stops near the zero, at a short distance more or less arbitrary.

     Technically it is introduced very small measures of distance ‘l’, time ‘t’ and mass ’m’, with which it is now possible to perform calculations with having infinite solutions. These parameters are the so known measures of Planck:


lPL = √ (h G / c3) ≈ 10-35 m


tPL = √ (h G / c5) ≈ 10-43 s


mPL = √ (h c / G) ≈ 10-8 Kg


      The initial success of the String Theory came from the eliminations of the zero in the equations of the Universe. Considering that, there is no distance or time zero. And so, all calculations were solved, especially all the problems of infinity. This, incidental changing, actually solves some problems; indeed, it makes disappear the infinity of black holes and of the Big Bang … but, unfortunately, physicist did not realize the reason why it solves these problems.

      I would say that the Planck’s constants are a myth ...  convenience constants ...

     Currently, it is in the process of Renormalization that relies all the foundations of modern Physics. I would say that these foundations are fragile, once they don’t recognize the potential of these two numbers.

      Zero and infinite, associated with energy, space and time are still being seen as a taboo in Physics. Throughout all History of Science, infinites and zeros were always found immediately guilty. But, what if these defendants are telling us the truth?

     If they are innocent, we just have to convince ourselves that we are not prepared to assume the veracity of science that conglobates and contains these two numbers.

     The mathematicians, who invented the math and numbers, the infinite and the zero, and the so many dimensions, work on this science but don’t believe in it.

     The richness and fullness of the Universe is in its own individuality and uniqueness. The fundamental reality of this Universe contains absolutely all the time, all the space and all the energy.

     The infinite is a number that contains many numbers, which grows up with no limit. The Laws of Science, those, they do contain many numbers, but these are the Laws of Nature. 

     If scientists do have faith, they will understand the Laws of the Universe!