Chapter XXV




"Time does not exist. It is only a convention. "

- Jorge Luis Borges -


      What is Time? What is Space?

      We could begin by naively assuming that we do not know what Time is, that we do not know what Space is.

      We only know what is a relationship of space, that space is a distance between two points, but we are not capable to say what is the concrete and absolute meaning of space itself.

      We also cannot say what it is the precise definition of time, we only know what is a relationship of time, that time defines a duration between two events.

      But defining objectively these two concepts becomes very difficult and it almost locks our thought every time we try to define the origin of time and the limits of space.

      Once you invoke the idea of an origin or a beginning, and therefore, a start, this abstract idea immediately transcends us.

      Let us admit that the Universe did have a beginning. But considering that the beginning is a moment of existence preceded by a time before this beginning had started, so we can say that there was a time when our Universe did not exist, the time before the origin of the Universe; and in a way what we are considering is a time before time, so that we can define it as a pre-time or, letís say, an empty time. But, speaking about the beginning of time itself, even considering it surrounded by an empty time, a time when nothing sill existed, it means that we are still situating time in time Ö we are continuing the same limitation of time† ... in time. That is a vicious cycle!

      Nobody understands how can we design a creation of time outside time itself. Possibly because that conception is not possible!

      There isnít, by definition, a period before time, nor can exist. So, the question of what could exist at that time, before the beginning of time, has no meaning.

      It is always dangerous to ask what could have existed before the birth of the Universe. If you believe that time didnīt exist in that period, what we are considering is that there was a time when time didnīt exist. Please do notice the paradox of this last sentence Ö ď a time when time didnít existĒ Ö so what we are saying is that there was a time when time didnít existed!

††††† In fact what we are saying is that there was a pre-time, maybe different from our usual physical meaning of time, but still so, in practice, what we are doing is assigning a new concept for time, which in fact is far from answering our question, just transforms it and modifies it into another perspective.

††††† If we assume that there was no time before time, then there could also exist no History to be situated it in that time before time. Concluding that if there was nothing to be situated in time there could not exist any Historical time Ö as well it could not existed any historical time around, surrounding a time when time didnít exist, thus mean, the time when our History is included. What I intend to say is: Accepting our historical time around a time that didnít exist is equivalent to situate that time that never existed in time in time itself Ö which is an absolute paradox!

      Therefore, we must conclude that there is no possibility of conceiving the existence of time outside time, and as such, that time has always existed and that there never could have been a beginning of time. The only possible and logical statement is that time is eternal, immortal and infinite!

      Let us now move towards a more fundamental question which is:

      Is it possible existing several moments of time ... at the same time!? Or even different types of time! Is time an absolute measure, effective, unchangeable, always equal and immutable in its form, always constant in all fields of the Universe and in all Universes, or is it possible that time could be a more variable and versatile concept?

      If you look well, this Force of Time is the dominant force! Very subtle, but always present and active. This force reigns since the beginning of time and it was already present long time before all the other forces have emerged. I would say that is a kind of Supreme Force.

      But nobody has ever heard about this Time Force! How come something so obvious to us can go unnoticed?

      I understand that it is often when things are under the disguise of obviously that no one can see them.

      What are the main features of time? There is nothing in known Physics which establish a law for the passage of time. Is this concept still too abstract?

      We have already seen that it is not possible to conceive a beginning of the Universe outside of time. The same argument is valid if we conceived the end of time of the Universe ...† so this means that our Universe can have no end! Even in this time when everything would have an end, even in this world where nothing is happening, a cold and dead Universe, static and inert, even then when nothing is moving, the Time itself, is the only thing that remains active and alive to continue to be and do its work.

      Time itís the artisan of its own preservation, of the renovation of Present, of the continuity of time. Its true stop would mean, not only the immobilization and absence of movement of all things, but also the immediate interruption of Present, and with this, the disappearance of all that exists. When I say everything, I truly mean to say absolutely everything! What is difficult idea to conceive in our intellect. This instantaneous and complete annihilation would result in a true Apocalypse! In this apocalypse everything would have an end. The complete abolition of time what would mean the end of the 'end' itself, as such, there could not even ever existed the moment of the end. Because the moment of the end also follows the principle of causality, which in our case would mean that there would not have existed a cause to precede the end. And if anything leads to an end ... then, there could not exist an end at all! What I want to say more clearly is that the end of time is not conceivable. We would face another paradox.

      There cannot exist a world without time, or time outside of time. So the time is consubstantial to the world and to time itself.

      Thus means that time cannot be finite in both directions; time must be infinite in all directions. We cannot trust in a asymmetric model of time for our Universe, establishing a beginning of time in one side and an infinite or indefinite time at the end of the Universe.

††††† Time is symmetric, constant and infinite in all directions and in all dimensions.

      Let us try to decode a formula for time.

      If time is everything at it is everywhere, absorbing everything that happens and even what does not happened Ö where is the fundamental formula of the time?

      How come that physicist aspires to build a Unified Theory without including the Force of Time? Time is also a force, a strong one, this is also a seed of our Universe. How can we imagine to build a Universe without time?!

      First, it is possible to demonstrate, mathematically, that time does not exist; that time is simply an abstract concept.

      When we say that time has no real existence, we are considering that time has got, simultaneously, a physical magnitude null and infinite. This Fundamental Force of Time can reach quite distinct values, since the value zero up to the infinity.

      According to the deduction of Antůnio Saraiva, this mathematical demonstration is possible. Beginning with the assumption that zero is equal to infinity, it appears that:


†††† 0 = ∞

†††† log 0 = log (+∞)

†††† -∞ = +∞

†††† log (-∞) = log (+∞)

††††† log (-1 ) + log (+∞) = +∞

†††† i.π + ∞ = ∞

†††† ∞ = ∞


      The conclusion is that zero is equal to infinity, and vice versa, that the infinity is equal to zero.

      This theoretical formulation can be transported to a practical formulation, as follows: First, we can consider that time has no real concrete existence. In this case, we are assigning a zero value for time. What this means is that we can say that there is no physical and objective existence of a temporal duration, in practice, it means that we cannot usually say 'there goes that little bit of time'. Because time does not exist as a physical entity in space, we cannot find it with physical dimensions of an object in particular, because the natural time is not formed of three space dimensions. Time, as a relationship of duration between two events, past and future, has got a null physical existence, and that is the reason why we cannot find it in a physical way. More simply, time takes value number zero because time is not a physical object. And that is why time doesnít exist Ö

      Furthermore, we all feel the passage of time. But this time which we all perceived is a Present time, one single moment, itís a moment with no duration or dimension, it is a singularity. And so, therefore, Present time is infinite. This is when time takes its other side, the value of infinity.

      Time assumes an ambivalent and multifaceted feature, simultaneously null and infinite, present and absent. So that we can say: in Time nothing is eternal and nothing is ephemeral!

††††† If we wish to understand this concept by the nature of the physical perception of our senses, we will stay completely limited. This means that, if we cannot handle Time physically, maybe we can understand and treat this concept mathematically.

††††† But in order to proceed to a mathematical manipulation of time, we need to know a fundamental formula of time. What is the mechanism that encodes and decodes the constant temporal relationship? What its messenger, the particle of time?

      So, letís see, does time affects all organisms and all objects simultaneously and at the same way?

      A bacterium is scheduled to reproduce in a very precise rate of time. The timing of cell division of bacteria varies from species to species and it is also influenced by many external factors such as temperature. But in the best growth conditions of these unicellular organisms they can perform a cell division every twenty minutes. This means that a single bacterium can produce 280 trillion descendants in one day!

      A radioactive mineral is programmed to disintegrate at a specific rate of time, designated as the half-life period. This decay period corresponds to the time required for half of the original nuclide to disintegrate into a more stable nucleus.

      The trees of the family of conifers, called Sequoias, know that their life expectancy is estimated at an average of 3500 years of time. Indeed, the oldest tree in the world is 9500 years old; itís a common pine in Norway.

      How come everything that exists knows how much time is passing by?

      Possibly because all material bodies have their own internal biological clock, which keeps them tuned with this frequency of time. Only that, nobody knows what are those exact mechanisms which contains this enigmatic Force of Time. This vast empire is still waiting for an astute and courageous explorer to find the absolute domain and knowledge of the flow of time.

††††† If we could discover the basic mechanisms of time, their most intimate secrets, we would have in our hands the greatest force that governs the entire Universe!

      If time is what makes everything change at a constant rate, with the same speed for all beings and substances that have the same properties, so that nothing can remain equal to itself, we can say that Time is a Constant of Changing.

      But if time is also what makes everything to continue, so, in a similar way, we could also consider it as being a Constant of Continuity.

      The changing and the impermanence require a timeless law of eternity and continuity.

      In an obvious sense, we can say that we are all travelers in time, because, even if we do nothing at all, we will still be inexorably dragged under by this force of time into the direction of the future. Thus, we can deduce that time ensure and guaranties that all matter remains informed about the passage of this force, without exceptions. There is always a pattern in time and a sintony which sensitizes all molecular substances and all chemical elements for the passage of this force.

      And what is the main key, the fundamental constitution of biological and non-biological organisms? What is the fundamental constitution of matter?

      Again we return to the Field and Energy! So that we can say that time is a form of energy, like so many others. Turning the redundancy, we can say that time is the energy that affects energy. Which means, quite clearly, that time also travels through space in a uniform, constant and continuous way, tracking the speed of light, because this temporal field also distributes at the speed of approximately 300.000 km / s. Because Time is a Field associated with Space.

      Time is a field! And this temporal field is, in its essence, uniform and homogeneous. Of course, there may be individual cases in which the very structure of space is altered and distorted. In such cases, if time spreads through space, or rather, itís a prisoner of space, we can assist to different flows of time ... Because the expression of time can be changed Ö

      If the energy of time is dominant, always present even in the absence of all other forces, what is the field force which produces it? If the energy of time is constant, what is the field responsible for giving this consistency?

      This Common Time, which we are surrounded, is, first of all, a particular time and it is not the Fundamental and Absolute Time.

      Another interesting physical relationship, established by Antůnio Saraiva is:

      Considering a Hydrogen atom, we can determinate that an electron travels an orbit in a fundamental and curious pattern.  In this fundamental movement the electrons velocity is minimal and its energy is also minimal. So that this movement follows a constant cycle with a well defined period.

      More important than what numbers can show us, is the theoretical interpretation that arises from this. And this is the part we must highlight: that all atoms in the Universe follow a constant pattern. The dislocation of the electrons charge in an atom follows a well defined period. This repetitive motion is the same for all atoms. And these are the biological clocks of Nature.

††††† The atoms themselves were designed and created from the beginning to respond to a specific flow of time. As such, if any object also have atoms in its constitution, all the entire structure of more complex groups of matter produced from them, from molecules to cells, to life itself, follows this same pattern of time.

      Thus it is easy to conclude that it is the speed of the electrons in atoms that sets the course of time, the life-time of an atom.

      If we could build a physical equipment capable of measuring and recording the number of orbits completed by an electron in an atom, it would be possible to verify that this number is a Constant. Except when this atom stops to be at rest and starts to move with speed, and then we would assist to the phenomenon of General Relativity and conclude that the number of orbits performed were clearly lower. The result of this process is reflected in a reduction of the flow of time.

      To understand the subtlety of this force we must again remember about that valuable constant: The Fine Structure constant. This constant re-enter on stage in a more fundamental question of Physics, which is Time.

      In the annotations of A. Saraiva we can see the perimeter P, corresponding to one stable orbit, has an exact value as it is showed in the following equation:


P = 2πRb = 137λe


      Rb => Bohr radius = 5.292 x 10-11 m

      λe => Compton wavelength = 2.426 x 10-12 m


      The Bohr radius ( or average radius of an atom ), and the Compton wavelength ( or the average wavelength of an electron ), represent units of measure that allow us to determine the perimeter of the path made by the electron. This perimeter, as we can see, has got a very precise value, exactly 137λe.  Similarly, we can also try to predict the average speed of the electron while it moves in this stable orbit, which also follows an interesting relationship, by the following equation:


v = c / 137

      Again, the Fine Structure constant α = 1 / 137, seems to have an important role in the speed of this particle, or rather, in the speed with which follows Time itself ... and, interestingly, associated with the speed which Time is spread, the speed of light c. We can define that the velocity of time, or the Formula of Time, is given by:


vt = c α